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Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching Integrating Instructional Software into Teaching & Learning.

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Presentation on theme: "Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching Integrating Instructional Software into Teaching & Learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching Integrating Instructional Software into Teaching & Learning

2 INSTRUCTIONAL SOFTWARE Programs developed for the sole purpose of delivering instruction or supporting learning activities

3 Drill & Practice Tutorial Simulation Instructional Games Problem-Solving ILS: Combination of Above Instructional Software Classifications

4 DRILL AND PRACTICE Allow learners to work problems or answer questions and get feedback on correctness. Drill and Practice activities have frequently been shown to allow the effective rehearsal students need to transfer newly learned information into long term memory. (Merrill & Salisbury, 1984; Salisbury, 1990).

5 Drill and Practice (continued) Kahn (1998-1999) cites drill and practice as a worthwhile software substitute for paper worksheets. According to Gagne (1982) and Bloom (1986) students need to develop automaticity or automatic recall of lower order skills to help them master higher order ones faster and more easily. Many teachers believe this can be achieved by the use of drill and practice software.

6 DRILL AND PRACTICE Three criteria for well-designed programs Control over presentation Appropriate feedback Answer reinforcement

7 DRILL AND PRACTICE Three benefits compared to paper exercises Immediate feedback Motivational Saves teacher time

8 DRILL AND PRACTICE Two classroom applications To supplement or replace worksheets To assist in preparing for objective tests

9 DRILL AND PRACTICE Some guidelines for using drill & practice Set time limits Assign individually Use learning stations

10 Act like human tutors by providing all the information and instructional activities a learner needs to master a topic: Information summaries Explanations Practice routines Feedback Assessment TUTORIALS

11 Four criteria for well-designed programs Extensive interaction Through user control Appropriate & comprehensive sequencing Adequate answer-judging & feedback

12 TUTORIALS Three ways to use tutorials Self-paced reviews Alternative learning strategies When teachers are not available

13 SIMULATIONS A simulation is a computerized model of a real or imagined system designed to teach how a system works. Unlike tutorials and drill and practice activities in which the structure is built into the package, learners must create their own sequence for using simulations.

14 SIMULATIONS Four types of simulations Physical (Users manipulate objects or phenomena represented on the screen) Iterative (Speed up or slow down processes) Procedural (Teach the appropriate sequence of steps to perform certain procedures) Situational (These programs give students hypothetical problem situations and ask them to react.)

15 SIMULATIONS Benefits of using simulations Compress time Slow down processes Get students involved Make experimentation safe

16 SIMULATIONS Additional benefits of using simulations  Make the impossible possible  Save resources  Repeat with variations  Make situations controllable

17 SIMULATIONS Ways to use simulations Lab experiments Replacement or supplement to role playing Replacement or supplement to field trips Introducing a new topic Fostering exploration Encouraging cooperation & group work

18 INSTRUCTIONAL GAMES Instructional games are courseware designed to increase motivation by adding game rules to learning activities

19 INSTRUCTIONAL GAMES Game Characteristics Game rules Elements of competition & challenge Amusing or entertaining formats

20 INSTRUCTIONAL GAMES Three ways to use games In place of worksheets and exercises To foster cooperation and group work As a reward

21 PROBLEM SOLVING Two views on fostering problem solving As component skills that can be taught ( Teach directly through explanation and/or practice the steps involved in solving problems) Inquiry approach ( Help learners acquire problem-solving skills by giving them opportunities to solve problems)

22 PROBLEM SOLVING Two types of courseware Specific to content area General content- free skills

23 PROBLEM SOLVING Benefits of using problem solving Motivates students to solve problems Keeps knowledge from becoming inert

24 Lecture 4 Teaching and Learning with Productivity Tools

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