2 Grid Computing Definations The term Grid computing originated in the early 1990s as a metaphor for making computer power as easy to access as an electric power grid.The definitive definition of a Grid is provided by Ian Foster in his article "What is the Grid?Computing resources are not administered centrally.Open standards are used.Non-trivial quality of service is achieved.Plaszczak/Wellner define Grid technology as "the technology that enables resource virtualization, on-demand provisioning, and service (resource) sharing between organizations."IBM : "A Grid is a type of parallel and distributed system that enables the sharing, selection, and aggregation of resources distributed across multiple administrative domains based on the resources availability, capacity, performance, cost and users' quality-of-service requirements"
3 What is Grid Computing“Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources” IBM Redbook .
4 Electrical Power Grid Analogy users (or electrical appliances) get access to electricity through wall sockets with no care or consideration for where or how the electricity is actually generated.“The power grid” links together power plants of many different kindsThe Grid Computingusers (or client applications) gain access to computing resources (processors, storage, data, applications, and so on) as needed with little or no knowledge of where those resources are located or what the underlying technologies, hardware, operating system, and so on are"the Grid" links together computing resources (PCs, workstations, servers, storage elements) and provides the mechanism needed to access them.
5 Properties of the Grid• Distributed • Dynamic • Heterogeneous • Virtual environment • Collaborative environment • Transparent access to all the available resources
6 Why need Grid Computing? Core networking technology now accelerates at a much faster rate than advances in microprocessor speedsExploiting under utilized resourcesParallel CPU capacityVirtual resources and virtual organizations for collaborationAccess to additional resources
7 Who needs Grid Computing? Not just computer scientists…scientists “hit the wall” when faced with situations:The amount of data they need is huge and the data is stored in different institutions.The amount of similar calculations the scientist has to do is huge.Other areas:GovernmentBusinessEducationIndustrial designetcComputational/experimental scientists and engineers Control remote instruments Access to data repositories and (super)computers Visualization and data analysisData intensive applicationsCollider experiments in particle physics produce petabytes per yearAstronomy digital sky surveys, e.g. the virtual observatory projectExample data grids: NSF GriPhyN, DOE PPDG, EU DataGridIndustry Link people (video conferencing & remote collaboration systems) Share resources Problem solvingGovernment Public policy making based on collaborative information sharing Disaster response using information gathering and decision makingEducation Virtual classrooms (one-way video conferencing) Remote demonstrations and remote access to collections
8 What grid computing can do(1) Exploiting underutilized resources:We can use an idle machine elsewhere on the grid to run jobsParallel CPU capacity is one of the most attractive features of a gridSubjobs on different machinesExploiting underutilization : Most desktop machines are busy less than 5% of the time. In some organizations, even the servermachines can often be relatively idle.For example, a batch job that spends a significant amount of time processing a set of inputdata to produce an output set is perhaps the most ideal and simple use for a grid. If thequantities of input and output are large, more thought and planning might be required toefficiently use the grid for such a job. It would usually not make sense to use a wordprocessor remotely on a grid because there would probably be greater delays and morepotential points of failure.
9 What grid computing can do(2) ApplicationsGrid-enabled applicationsno practical tools for transforming arbitrary applications to exploit the parallel capabilities of a grid.
10 What grid computing can do(3) Virtual resources and virtual organizations for collaborationMore capable than distributed computingWider audienceOpen standards, hence highly heterogeneous systemsData, equipment, software, services, licenses,…
11 What grid computing can do(3) Access to additional resourcesspecial equipment, software, licenses, and other servicesResource balancing
12 What grid computing can do(4) ReliabilityNow: redundancy in hardwareFuture: SoftwareUtilize “autonomic computing”
13 Grid concepts and components(1) Types of resources ComputationStoragePrimary/secondary storageMountable networked filed systemAFS, NFS, DFS, GPFSCapacity increaseUniform name spaceData Stripping
14 Grid concepts and components(2) Types of resources (cont) CommunicationsRedundant communication pathsSpecial equipment, capacities, architectures, and policiesdifferent architectures, operating systems, devices, capacities, and equipment.Jobs and applicationsApplication is a collection of jobsSpecific dependencies
15 Grid concepts and components(3) Types of resources (cont) Scheduling, reservation, and scavengingschedulerautomatically finds the most appropriate machine on which to run any given jobscavengingreport its idle status to the grid management node.Reserveddedicated resources
16 Grid concepts and components(4) Intragrid to Intergridclustersame hardware/softwareIntragridheterogeneous machines/softwaremultiple department/same organizationIntergridmultiple department/multiple organization
17 Grid User Roles ---A User’s Perspective Enrolling and installing grid softwareLogging onto the gridQueries and submitting jobsData configurationMonitoring progress and recoveryReserving resources
18 Grid User Roles ---An Administrator’s Perspective PlanningInstallationManaging enrollment of donors and usersCertificate authorityResource managementData sharing
19 Using a grid: An application developer’s perspective(1) Applications that are not enabled for using multiple processors but can be executed on different machines.Applications that are already designed to use the multiple processors of a grid setting.
20 Using a grid: An application developer’s perspective(2) Globusdeveloper’s toolkitManage grid operationsMeasurementRepairDebug grid applicationsOpen Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)
21 Grid Architecture GRID Internet Application Application Collective ResourceTransportConnectivityInternetFabricLink
22 Grid ArchitectureFabric layer: Provides the resources to which shared access is mediated by Grid protocols.Connectivity layer: Defines the core communication and authentication protocols required for grid-specific network functions.Resource layer: Defines protocols, APIs, and SDKs for secure negotiations, initiation, monitoring control, accounting and payment of sharing operations on individual resources.Collective Layer: Contains protocols and services that capture interactions among a collection of resources.Application Layer: These are user applications that operate within VO (Virtual Organization ) environment.Grid Computing
23 Standards for Grid Environments Global Grid Forum (GGF)Organization for the Advancement of StructuredInformation Standards (OASIS) open.org/World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)Web Services Interoperability Organization (WS- I)
24 Globus Toolkit v5The Globus Alliance is made up of organizations and individuals that develop and make available various technologies applicable to grid computing.The Globus toolkit v5 includes software for security, information infrastructure, resource management, data management, communication, fault detection, and portability. It is packaged as a set of components that can be used either independently or together to develop applications.For more information visit
25 Finallygrid computing assumes and/or requires technologies that include:Support for executing programs on a variety of platformsA secure infrastructureData movement/replication/federationResource discoveryResource management
26 References Introduction to Grid Computing IBM Redbook The Grid 2: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure, 2nd Edition from Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman.The Anatomy of the Grid: Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations by I. Foster, C. Kesselman and S. Tuecke , International J. Supercomputer Applications, 15(3), pers/anatomy.pdf