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Grid Computing Net 535.

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Presentation on theme: "Grid Computing Net 535."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grid Computing Net 535

2 Grid Computing Definations
The term Grid computing originated in the early 1990s as a metaphor for making computer power as easy to access as an electric power grid. The definitive definition of a Grid is provided by Ian Foster in his article "What is the Grid? Computing resources are not administered centrally. Open standards are used. Non-trivial quality of service is achieved. Plaszczak/Wellner define Grid technology as "the technology that enables resource virtualization, on-demand provisioning, and service (resource) sharing between organizations." IBM : "A Grid is a type of parallel and distributed system that enables the sharing, selection, and aggregation of resources distributed across multiple administrative domains based on the resources availability, capacity, performance, cost and users' quality-of-service requirements"

3 What is Grid Computing “Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources” IBM Redbook .

4 Electrical Power Grid Analogy
users (or electrical appliances) get access to electricity through wall sockets with no care or consideration for where or how the electricity is actually generated. “The power grid” links together power plants of many different kinds The Grid Computing users (or client applications) gain access to computing resources (processors, storage, data, applications, and so on) as needed with little or no knowledge of where those resources are located or what the underlying technologies, hardware, operating system, and so on are "the Grid" links together computing resources (PCs, workstations, servers, storage elements) and provides the mechanism needed to access them.

5 Properties of the Grid • Distributed • Dynamic • Heterogeneous • Virtual environment • Collaborative environment • Transparent access to all the available resources

6 Why need Grid Computing?
Core networking technology now accelerates at a much faster rate than advances in microprocessor speeds Exploiting under utilized resources Parallel CPU capacity Virtual resources and virtual organizations for collaboration Access to additional resources

7 Who needs Grid Computing?
Not just computer scientists… scientists “hit the wall” when faced with situations: The amount of data they need is huge and the data is stored in different institutions. The amount of similar calculations the scientist has to do is huge. Other areas: Government Business Education Industrial design etc Computational/experimental scientists and engineers  Control remote instruments  Access to data repositories and (super)computers  Visualization and data analysis Data intensive applications Collider experiments in particle physics produce petabytes per year Astronomy digital sky surveys, e.g. the virtual observatory project Example data grids: NSF GriPhyN, DOE PPDG, EU DataGrid Industry  Link people (video conferencing & remote collaboration systems)  Share resources  Problem solving Government  Public policy making based on collaborative information sharing  Disaster response using information gathering and decision making Education  Virtual classrooms (one-way video conferencing)  Remote demonstrations and remote access to collections

8 What grid computing can do(1)
Exploiting underutilized resources: We can use an idle machine elsewhere on the grid to run jobs Parallel CPU capacity is one of the most attractive features of a grid Subjobs on different machines Exploiting underutilization : Most desktop machines are busy less than 5% of the time. In some organizations, even the server machines can often be relatively idle. For example, a batch job that spends a significant amount of time processing a set of input data to produce an output set is perhaps the most ideal and simple use for a grid. If the quantities of input and output are large, more thought and planning might be required to efficiently use the grid for such a job. It would usually not make sense to use a word processor remotely on a grid because there would probably be greater delays and more potential points of failure.

9 What grid computing can do(2)
Applications Grid-enabled applications no practical tools for transforming arbitrary applications to exploit the parallel capabilities of a grid.

10 What grid computing can do(3)
Virtual resources and virtual organizations for collaboration More capable than distributed computing Wider audience Open standards, hence highly heterogeneous systems Data, equipment, software, services, licenses,…

11 What grid computing can do(3)
Access to additional resources special equipment, software, licenses, and other services Resource balancing

12 What grid computing can do(4)
Reliability Now: redundancy in hardware Future: Software Utilize “autonomic computing”

13 Grid concepts and components(1) Types of resources
Computation Storage Primary/secondary storage Mountable networked filed system AFS, NFS, DFS, GPFS Capacity increase Uniform name space Data Stripping

14 Grid concepts and components(2) Types of resources (cont)
Communications Redundant communication paths Special equipment, capacities, architectures, and policies different architectures, operating systems, devices, capacities, and equipment. Jobs and applications Application is a collection of jobs Specific dependencies

15 Grid concepts and components(3) Types of resources (cont)
Scheduling, reservation, and scavenging scheduler automatically finds the most appropriate machine on which to run any given job scavenging report its idle status to the grid management node. Reserved dedicated resources

16 Grid concepts and components(4)
Intragrid to Intergrid cluster same hardware/software Intragrid heterogeneous machines/software multiple department/same organization Intergrid multiple department/multiple organization

17 Grid User Roles ---A User’s Perspective
Enrolling and installing grid software Logging onto the grid Queries and submitting jobs Data configuration Monitoring progress and recovery Reserving resources

18 Grid User Roles ---An Administrator’s Perspective
Planning Installation Managing enrollment of donors and users Certificate authority Resource management Data sharing

19 Using a grid: An application developer’s perspective(1)
Applications that are not enabled for using multiple processors but can be executed on different machines. Applications that are already designed to use the multiple processors of a grid setting.

20 Using a grid: An application developer’s perspective(2)
Globus developer’s toolkit Manage grid operations Measurement Repair Debug grid applications Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)

21 Grid Architecture GRID Internet Application Application Collective
Resource Transport Connectivity Internet Fabric Link

22 Grid Architecture Fabric layer: Provides the resources to which shared access is mediated by Grid protocols. Connectivity layer: Defines the core communication and authentication protocols required for grid-specific network functions. Resource layer: Defines protocols, APIs, and SDKs for secure negotiations, initiation, monitoring control, accounting and payment of sharing operations on individual resources. Collective Layer: Contains protocols and services that capture interactions among a collection of resources. Application Layer: These are user applications that operate within VO (Virtual Organization ) environment. Grid Computing

23 Standards for Grid Environments
Global Grid Forum (GGF) Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) Web Services Interoperability Organization (WS- I)

24 Globus Toolkit v5 The Globus Alliance is made up of organizations and individuals that develop and make available various technologies applicable to grid computing. The Globus toolkit v5 includes software for security, information infrastructure, resource management, data management, communication, fault detection, and portability. It is packaged as a set of components that can be used either independently or together to develop applications. For more information visit

25 Finally grid computing assumes and/or requires technologies that include: Support for executing programs on a variety of platforms A secure infrastructure Data movement/replication/federation Resource discovery Resource management

26 References Introduction to Grid Computing IBM Redbook
The Grid 2: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure, 2nd Edition from Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman. The Anatomy of the Grid: Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations by I. Foster, C. Kesselman and S. Tuecke , International J. Supercomputer Applications, 15(3), pers/anatomy.pdf

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