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Identity and Personality

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Presentation on theme: "Identity and Personality"— Presentation transcript:

1 Identity and Personality
The Self Identity Personality

2 Self-Understanding Self: All characteristics of a person
The Self Self-Understanding Self: All characteristics of a person Self-understanding, self-esteem, self-concept Identity: Who a person is. Personality: Enduring personal characteristics of individuals. Young children perceive self as external characteristics. Older children recognize difference between inner and outer states.

3 Early Childhood Self-understanding: Self-descriptions are unrealistic
The Self Early Childhood Self-understanding: Self-descriptions are unrealistic positive overestimations Understanding others: Individual differences in social understanding linked to caregivers.

4 Middle and Late Childhood
The Self Middle and Late Childhood Self-understanding: (5 key changes) Internal characteristics emphasized More referencing in social descriptions More use of social comparisons Distinguish between real self and ideal self Realistic in self-evaluations Understanding others: Increased perspective taking. Perspective-taking: Ability to assume another’s perspective and understand his or her thoughts and feelings.

5 Self-Understanding in Adolescence
The Self Self-Understanding in Adolescence Abstract and idealistic Self-conscious; preoccupied with self Contradictions within the self – multiple roles in different contexts realized Fluctuating self over time and situations Compare real and ideal selves Possible selves: what persons may be, would like to be, and are afraid of becoming Self-integration in sense of identity

6 Changes in Self-Understanding in Adulthood
The Self Changes in Self-Understanding in Adulthood Self-Awareness: Awareness of strengths and weaknesses Improves in young and middle adulthood Possible Selves: Get fewer and more concrete with age Some revise throughout adulthood Life Review: Some in middle age, common in older adults Evaluations of successes and failures

7 Issues with Self-Esteem
The Self Issues with Self-Esteem Modest correlations link self-esteem and school performance; links vary between adult job performance and self-esteem Self-esteem related to perceived physical appearance across life-span Depression lowers high self-esteem Persons with high self-esteem: Increased happiness Have greater initiative Prone to both prosocial and antisocial actions Undeserved high self-esteem: Narcissism: self-centered, self-concerned Conceited Lack of awareness linked to adjustment problems

8 Self-Esteem in Childhood and Adolescence
The Self Self-Esteem in Childhood and Adolescence Accuracy of self-evaluations increases across the elementary school years Majority of adolescents have positive self-image cross- culturally Girls’ self-esteem is lower than boys’ by middle school years

9 Self-Esteem in Adulthood
The Self Self-Esteem in Adulthood Some researchers find drops in self-esteem in late adulthood; others don’t. Older adults with positive self-esteem: May not see losses as negatively Decrease in knowledge-related goals Increase in emotion-related goals Compare themselves to other older adults

10 Self-Esteem Across the Lifespan
Prenatal Development Self-Esteem Across the Lifespan

11 Self-Regulation in Infancy and Early Childhood
The Self Self-Regulation in Infancy and Early Childhood months Depend on caregivers for reminder signals about acceptable behaviors Begin to comply with the caregiver’s expectations in the absence of monitoring 2-3 years Learn to resist temptation and give themselves instructions that keep them focused Preschool

12 Self-Regulation in Middle/Late Childhood and Adolescence
The Self Self-Regulation in Middle/Late Childhood and Adolescence Self-regulation increases from about 5 or 6 years up to 7 or 8 years of age Across elementary school years, children increase beliefs that behavior is result of own effort and not luck From 8 to 14 years of age, children increase perception of self-responsibility for failure Successful self-regulation in aging linked to: Selection: Reduction in performance Optimization: Continue practice, use of technology Compensation: Concealment; offsetting or counterbalancing a deficiency

13 Personal Control Primary control striving:
The Self Personal Control Primary control striving: One’s efforts to change external world to fit needs and desires. Attain personal goals, overcome obstacles. Secondary control striving: Targets one’s inner worlds: motivation, emotion, and mental representation.

14 What is Identity? Self-portrait of many identities: Sexual
Vocational/career Political Religious Relationship Achievement/intellectual Sexual Cultural/ethnic Interests Personality Physical

15 Erikson’s Ideas on Identity
Erickson: Identity versus identity confusion: Adolescents examine who they are, what they are about, and where they are going in life. Psychosocial moratorium: Gap between childhood security and adult autonomy, part of adolescent identity exploration. _____________________________________________________________ Marcia: Individuals go through periods of- Crisis: exploring alternatives during identity development. Commitment: individuals show personal investment in what they are going to do.

16 Marcia’s Identity Statuses

17 Early Adolescence to Adulthood
Identity Early Adolescence to Adulthood Most important changes occur ages 18 to 25 “MAMA” cycle: pattern for positive identity moratorium • achievement • moratorium • achievement _____________________________________________________________ Parenting styles: Democratic foster identity achievement Autocratic foster identity foreclosure Permissive foster identity diffusion

18 Trait Theories and the Big Five Factors of Personality
Personality is broad dispositions or traits that tend to produce characteristic responses.

19 Views On Adult Development
Personality Views On Adult Development Stage-Crisis View: Levinson’s Seasons of a Man’s Life- Stage and transitions occur in life span. Tasks or crisis in each stage shape personality. Levinson’s midlife crisis in 40s.

20 Personality Age and Well-Being

21 The Life-Events Approach
Personality The Life-Events Approach Now contemporary life-events approach. How a life event influences individual’s development depends on: The life event Individual’s adaptation to the life event Life-stage context Sociohistorical context

22 Generativity versus Stagnation
Personality Generativity versus Stagnation Seventh stage in Erikson’s life-span theory: Generativity- Encompasses adults’ desire to leave legacy to next generation Middle-aged adults develop in number of ways Stagnation- Also self-absorption, develops when one senses s/he has done nothing for next generation

23 Personality Stability and Change Many longitudinal studies have found evidence for both change and stability in personality in adulthood: Smith College Study Costa and McCrae’s Baltimore Study Berkley Longitudinal Studies Helson’s Mills College Study Vaillant’s studies

24 Stability and Change Cumulative Personality Model:
With time and age, people become more adept at interacting with environment in ways that promote stability Overall, personality is affected by: Social contexts New experiences Sociohistorical changes

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