Presentation on theme: "Identity and Personality"— Presentation transcript:
1 Identity and Personality The SelfIdentityPersonality
2 Self-Understanding Self: All characteristics of a person The SelfSelf-UnderstandingSelf:All characteristics of a personSelf-understanding, self-esteem, self-conceptIdentity:Who a person is.Personality:Enduring personal characteristics of individuals.Young children perceive self as external characteristics.Older children recognize difference between inner and outer states.
3 Early Childhood Self-understanding: Self-descriptions are unrealistic The SelfEarly ChildhoodSelf-understanding:Self-descriptions are unrealisticpositive overestimationsUnderstanding others:Individual differences insocial understanding linkedto caregivers.
4 Middle and Late Childhood The SelfMiddle and Late ChildhoodSelf-understanding: (5 key changes)Internal characteristics emphasizedMore referencing in social descriptionsMore use of social comparisonsDistinguish between real self and ideal selfRealistic in self-evaluationsUnderstanding others:Increased perspective taking.Perspective-taking:Ability to assume another’s perspective and understand his or her thoughts and feelings.
5 Self-Understanding in Adolescence The SelfSelf-Understanding in AdolescenceAbstract and idealisticSelf-conscious; preoccupied with selfContradictions within the self – multiple roles in different contexts realizedFluctuating self over time and situationsCompare real and ideal selvesPossible selves: what persons may be, would like to be, and are afraid of becomingSelf-integration in sense of identity
6 Changes in Self-Understanding in Adulthood The SelfChanges in Self-Understanding in AdulthoodSelf-Awareness:Awareness of strengths and weaknessesImproves in young and middle adulthoodPossible Selves:Get fewer and more concrete with ageSome revise throughout adulthoodLife Review:Some in middle age, common in older adultsEvaluations of successes and failures
7 Issues with Self-Esteem The SelfIssues with Self-EsteemModest correlations link self-esteem and school performance; links vary between adult job performance and self-esteemSelf-esteem related to perceived physical appearance across life-spanDepression lowers high self-esteemPersons with high self-esteem:Increased happinessHave greater initiativeProne to both prosocial and antisocial actionsUndeserved high self-esteem:Narcissism: self-centered, self-concernedConceitedLack of awareness linked to adjustment problems
8 Self-Esteem in Childhood and Adolescence The SelfSelf-Esteem in Childhood and AdolescenceAccuracy of self-evaluations increases across the elementary school yearsMajority of adolescents have positive self-image cross- culturallyGirls’ self-esteem is lower than boys’ by middle school years
9 Self-Esteem in Adulthood The SelfSelf-Esteem in AdulthoodSome researchers find drops in self-esteem in late adulthood; others don’t.Older adults with positive self-esteem:May not see losses as negativelyDecrease in knowledge-related goalsIncrease in emotion-related goalsCompare themselves to other older adults
10 Self-Esteem Across the Lifespan Prenatal DevelopmentSelf-Esteem Across the Lifespan
11 Self-Regulation in Infancy and Early Childhood The SelfSelf-Regulation in Infancy and Early ChildhoodmonthsDepend on caregivers for reminder signals about acceptable behaviorsBegin to comply with the caregiver’s expectations in the absence of monitoring2-3 yearsLearn to resist temptation and give themselves instructions that keep them focusedPreschool
12 Self-Regulation in Middle/Late Childhood and Adolescence The SelfSelf-Regulation in Middle/Late Childhood and AdolescenceSelf-regulation increases from about 5 or 6 years up to 7 or 8 years of ageAcross elementary school years, children increase beliefs that behavior is result of own effort and not luckFrom 8 to 14 years of age, children increase perception of self-responsibility for failureSuccessful self-regulation in aging linked to:Selection:Reduction in performanceOptimization:Continue practice, use of technologyCompensation:Concealment; offsetting or counterbalancing a deficiency
13 Personal Control Primary control striving: The SelfPersonal ControlPrimary control striving:One’s efforts to change external world to fit needs and desires.Attain personal goals, overcome obstacles.Secondary control striving:Targets one’s inner worlds: motivation, emotion, and mental representation.
14 What is Identity? Self-portrait of many identities: Sexual Vocational/careerPoliticalReligiousRelationshipAchievement/intellectualSexualCultural/ethnicInterestsPersonalityPhysical
15 Erikson’s Ideas on Identity Erickson:Identity versus identity confusion:Adolescents examine who they are, what they are about, and where they are going in life.Psychosocial moratorium:Gap between childhood security and adult autonomy, part of adolescent identity exploration._____________________________________________________________Marcia:Individuals go through periods of-Crisis: exploring alternatives during identity development.Commitment: individuals show personal investment in what they are going to do.
17 Early Adolescence to Adulthood IdentityEarly Adolescence to AdulthoodMost important changes occur ages 18 to 25“MAMA” cycle: pattern for positive identitymoratorium • achievement • moratorium • achievement_____________________________________________________________Parenting styles:Democratic foster identity achievementAutocratic foster identity foreclosurePermissive foster identity diffusion
18 Trait Theories and the Big Five Factors of Personality Personality is broad dispositions or traits that tend to produce characteristic responses.
19 Views On Adult Development PersonalityViews On Adult DevelopmentStage-Crisis View:Levinson’s Seasons of a Man’s Life-Stage and transitions occur in life span.Tasks or crisis in each stage shape personality.Levinson’s midlife crisis in 40s.
21 The Life-Events Approach PersonalityThe Life-Events ApproachNow contemporary life-events approach.How a life event influences individual’s development depends on:The life eventIndividual’s adaptation to the life eventLife-stage contextSociohistorical context
22 Generativity versus Stagnation PersonalityGenerativity versus StagnationSeventh stage in Erikson’s life-span theory:Generativity-Encompasses adults’ desire to leave legacy to next generationMiddle-aged adults develop in number of waysStagnation-Also self-absorption, develops when one senses s/he has done nothing for next generation
23 PersonalityStability and ChangeMany longitudinal studies have found evidence for both change and stability in personality in adulthood:Smith College StudyCosta and McCrae’s Baltimore StudyBerkley Longitudinal StudiesHelson’s Mills College StudyVaillant’s studies
24 Stability and Change Cumulative Personality Model: With time and age, people become more adept at interacting with environment in ways that promote stabilityOverall, personality is affected by:Social contextsNew experiencesSociohistorical changes