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Steering Fundamentals

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Presentation on theme: "Steering Fundamentals"— Presentation transcript:

1 Steering Fundamentals
Chapter 65

2 Objectives List the parts of steering systems
Describe the principles of operation of steering systems Compare linkage systems to rack and pinion Describe how power steering systems operate

3 Steering Systems Steering system works with the suspension system
Components Steering gear Steering linkage Steering wheel Steering column Styles of steering Gear box and parallelogram linkage Long rack with linkage extending from ends

4 Steering Gears Common types Steering ratio Turning radius
Recirculating ball and nut steering gear Rack and pinion steering gear Steering ratio Amount of steering wheel rotation Steering wheel turned all the way in one direction: stops against a lock Turning radius Amount of space required for a vehicle to turn around

5 Recirculating Ball and Nut Steering Gear
Sector gear meshes with ball nut Ball nut rides on bearings on the worm shaft Provides smooth steering feel Ball nut has curved channels Steering shaft has bearing channels Balls rotate and recirculate through tubes

6 Rack-and-Pinion Steering
Characteristics End of steering shaft has a pinion gear Meshes with the rack gear Lighter and easier to install than standard steering gears Often has a faster ratio More easily damaged when front wheels hit a curb or rock Transmit more road shock

7 Steering Linkage Steering gear is connected to wheels by steering linkage Parts vary depending on design Tie-rods Steering arms Steering-knuckle Parallelogram steering design Most popular Used with long and short arm suspension

8 Parallelogram Steering Linkage
Recirculating ball gear uses parallelogram steering Name comes from parallelogram shape made by steering linkage during a turn Characteristics Tie-rods on each side connected by center link Pitman arm connects steering box to center link Idler arm supports center link on passenger side


10 Ball Sockets Ball sockets connect steering linkage parts
Allow parts to rotate during a turn Pivot as the steering deflects during a bump

11 Tie Rods Tie-rod ends attached to pivot points at front wheels
Transmit motion from steering wheel to front wheels Maintain correct front wheel toe Threaded adjusting sleeve connects inner and outer tie-rods Right-hand thread on one end Left-hand on other


13 Steering Arm Tie-rods attach to front wheels at steering arms
Steering arm is attached to steering knuckle Includes spindle During a turn Inside wheel must turn sharper than outside wheel Steering arms angled inward Ackerman angle Toe-out-on-turns


15 Rack-and-Pinion Steering Linkage
Rack and pinion: less complicated Two tie-rods come out of steering rack Conventional tie-rod end ball sockets on outer ends Inner tie-rod ends are ball sockets enclosed in rubber bellows or boots Steering damper Minimizes effect of road shocks to steering wheel

16 Steering Column Steering wheel splined to steering shaft located in center of steering column Locknut retains steering wheel to shaft Shaft supported by bearings at top and bottom of column Tilt columns allow driver to adjust steering wheel angle Air bags are installed on steering wheel There is flexible coupling between steering shaft and splined input shaft of steering gear


18 Power Steering Steering systems on most cars today are power assisted
Some manual units are still made Most power steering is hydraulic Pressure supplied from crankshaft by belt-driven pump

19 Power Steering Pump Steering pump driven by crankshaft belt supplies hydraulic pressure to assist steering Power steering pump types: roller, vane, and slipper Operation Pump develops more flow at higher speeds Flow control valve is almost always working Requires considerable horsepower to operate

20 Types of Power Steering
Power steering is either rack-and-pinion or conventional recirculating ball and nut units Most power steering systems are integral Recirculating ball power steering Gear boxes use pivot lever or torsion bar acting on spool valve Rack-and-pinion systems Fluid is directed to a chamber on either side of the rack


22 Electronically Controlled Variable Effort Power Steering
Reasonable speed: fixed power assist not necessary Late-model vehicles: vehicle speed determines amount of power assist Pump-controlled units: actuator solenoid changes fluid flow Steering gear–controlled steering assist: boost is sensed by module Four-wheel steering systems: improve handling


24 Electronically Controlled Steering Systems
Can be “steering-by-wire” or mechanically connected using electro-hydraulic steering gear AFS system changes between low and high speed steering assist Electric motor–powered steering systems use a rack-and-pinion steering gear Electric power steering improves fuel economy Controls amount of assist by regulating current Planetary gear active steering Input is sun gear and output is planetary carrier


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