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Presentation on theme: "CANCER TPJ4M."— Presentation transcript:


2 OBJECTIVE Define and discuss cancer

3 Cancer Definition – abnormal growth of cells that can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body Cancer cells can originate in any body tissue

4 Your cells

5 The Cell Cycle The series of events a cell undergoes from the time it is formed until it grows and reproduces new cells: Interphase – resting and growth phase where the cell spends most of its life Mitosis – division phase where the nucleus divides (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase) *PMAT Cytokinesis – cell division where the cell divides in half

6 Cell Cycle

7 Normal Cells (NC) Cancerous Cells (CC)
Once NC grow and mature, cell division stops because able to fully function CC keep on dividing, never mature, thus do not stop growing and not fully functioning

8 DNA mutations disrupt the cell cycle.
Mutations may be caused by: 1. radiation 2. smoking 3. Pollutants 4. chemicals 5. viruses

9 Cancer Cells Cancer cells experience uncontrolled and disorganized cell growth Cancer cells enter mitosis repeatedly and never grow to maturity Cancer cells eventually form a growth called tumor Tumors invades and destroys neighbouring healthy cells

10 Two Main Types of Cancer
Carcinoma Sarcoma Skin Bone Lining of hollow organs and passageways Muscle Lymph cartilage

11 OBJECTIVE List two types of tumours and explain how they are different
Explain metastasis

12 Tumour – Growth of Abnormal Cells
Benign tumour Grows slowly Localized area Malignant tumour grows slow or fast depending on type of cancer Invades other tissues and/or travels to other parts of body Causes death if not treated and controlled THE IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE B/W BENIGN AND MALIGNANT TUMOURS IS THAT ONE INVADES AND SPREADS (MALIGNANT)

13 Benign Tumors (Not Cancerous) Malignant Tumors (Cancerous)
As they grow benign tumors simply push the surrounding normal tissues and organs out of their way. Malignant tumors eat into and destroy the normal tissue around them as they increase in size. Sometimes pressure from a benign tumor may damage surrounding structures but the benign tumor never actually invades into those structures. Malignant tumors invade and damage structures. Benign tumors can grow quite large without causing any problems. Malignant tumor damages the tissue around it from the time it first begins to grow. Benign tumors do not spread. They may grow to a large size but they do not go to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors have the ability to spread by sending off seedlings of tumor which can pass through the blood or lymphatic system to other parts of the body. These seedlings then settle in other organs and form what are called secondary tumors or metastases.


15 Cancer – Most Common Sites
Skin Prostate Lungs Uterus Colon Rectum Breast


17 OBJECTIVE List the seven warning signs of cancer

18 Caution – Seven Early Warning Signs of Cancer
Change in bowel or bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing Obvious changes in wart or mole Nagging cough or hoarseness

19 OBJECTIVE Describe the three most common types of treatment for cancer

20 Standard Cancer Treatment
Surgery Radiation therapy Chemotherapy Oral Intramuscular Intravenous

21 Chemotherapy *Treatment of cancer with an antineoplastic drug or in combination with such drugs *****Antineoplastic drugs (control or kill neoplastic cells – part of tumor) *The most common chemotherapy agents act by killing cells that divide rapidly *Chemotherapy also harms cells that divide rapidly under normal circumstances: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract, and hair follicles.

22 Side-effects of chemotherapy
*Decreased production of blood cells (because it affects the bone marrow) *Inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract *Hair loss (because it affects the hair follicles)

23 Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to shrink tumors and kill cancer cells The radiation may be delivered by a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy, also called brachytherapy). Systemic radiation therapy uses radioactive substances, such as radioactive iodine, that travel in the blood to kill cancer cells

24 How does Radiation Therapy kill cancerous cells?
Radiation therapy kills cancer cells by damaging their DNA Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die However radiation therapy can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects

25 Side effects of Radiation Therapy
Skin irritations Damage to salivary glands Fatigue Nausea Vomiting Damage to the bowels, causing diarrhea and bleeding. Memory loss. Infertility (inability to have a child).

26 REVIEW Define cancer. Discuss cancer in relation to normal cells and the cell cycle. List two types of tumours. What is the main difference? What acronym is used for the 7 early warning signs of cancer? List the 7 signs Describe each of the 3 most common cancer treatments – add to existing answer. Add to your answer for metastasis

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