2 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT WWI Started on July 28, 1914Ended November 11, 1918Almost 8 million died because of the warRussia having the most : 1.7 million22,000,000 woundedMAP OF EUROPE GREATLY CHANGED
5 Karl MarxGerman philosopher, political economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, communist & revolutionaryIdeas created foundation of communismArgued capitalism would produce internal tension and lead to destruction.Created “ The Communist Manifesto” (1848)
6 Charles Darwin 1809-1882 Wrote: “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, 1859All plants and animals have evolved over a long period of timeThose who survived had adapted to the environmentThe Descent of Man, 1871Ideas highly controversial; gradually accepted
7 Now for a bit of humorThe continuing Evolution of man
8 The Causes of World War I MilitarismAlliancesImperialismNationalism
9 MilitarismMilitarism - Building up weapons and forces to get ready for war
10 Militarism Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships The British feared an attack on their Empire, so they built even more battleships
11 MilitarismGermany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies
12 MilitarismWorld War I was the first war in which advanced weaponry and tactics were usedThere was a race for creating more weapons of mass destruction among nationsThere was a desire to create a large amount of weapons as well as building up a nation’s army and navy
14 Nation# of aircraft in 1914Size of Army in 1914# of soldiers who fought in warAustria-Hungary343 million7.8 millionBritain1108.9 millionFrance1604 million8.4 millionGermany2464.5 million11 millionRussia3006 million12 millionUnited States4.4 million
15 AlliancesAlliance - Agreement or promise to defend and help another country, with military help if necessary
16 Alliances Aid – Supporting another country with the use of goods Treaty – An agreement to not attack each other
17 AlliancesBy 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances.The alliances made it more likely that a war would start.Once started, the alliances made war more likely to spread.
18 AlliancesBy 1907, Europe was divided into two armed and rather fearful camps
23 ImperialismImperialism - When one country takes over another territory to try to build up an EmpireEmpire – Where a powerful country controls several less powerful countries
24 ImperialismAll the great powers were competing for colonies and territoryThe fiercest competition was between Britain and Germany and between France and Germany
25 ImperialismGreat Britain, Germany and France needed foreign markets after the increase in manufacturing caused by the Industrial Revolution.These countries competed for economic expansion in Africa.Clash of France against Germany and Britain in North Africa
28 ImperialismThe British did not want Germany involved in Africa
29 ImperialismIn the Middle East, the crumbling Ottoman Empire was alluring to Austria-Hungary, the Balkans and RussiaThe Austrians did not want Serbia or Russia in the Balkans
30 Nationalism – having pride in your country, willing to defend it Annex – to add as an extra partThink: What are some holidays where people celebrate pride in their heritage?Nationalism
31 This was an age when all nations wanted to assert their power and independence Ottoman Empire ruled the Balkan area for 400 yearsNationalism
32 Nationalism The Balkan Area Balkans Albanians, Greeks, Romanians, and SlavSlavs in Austria-Hungary, aided by Serbia and Russia, wanted to be free of Austrian ruleEach group was struggling for their own independenceNationalism
33 THIS BECAME AN AREA OF CONFLICT BosniaArea of great hostilityAustria- Hungary annexed Bosnia as one of its territories in 1908Serbia was newly independent and thought that Bosnia should be one of their territoriesTHIS BECAME AN AREA OF CONFLICTNationalism
34 Key Figures Kaiser Wilhelm II Aggressive foreign policy – wanted Germany to be a “Bully”Built up German army and navyDetermined to make Germany a top nationDistrusted by other powers“Germany must have its place in the sun”“The world belongs to the strong.”
35 Key Figures Count Berchtold Austrian Foreign Minister, later Prime MinisterHated Serbia, wanted a reason to have a war with them
39 Seal of the Black Hand group The CrisisSeal of the Black Hand groupTHE BLACK HANDBlack Hand: Serbian nationalist groupThe main objective of the Black Hand was the creation, by means of violence, of a Greater Serbia.
40 The Crisis “Black Hand” terrorists attack on the Arch Duke Bomb attempt in the morning fails to kill the Arch DukeLater in the day, Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and his wife
41 The Crisis Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatumSerbia agrees to all but two terms of the ultimatumRussia prepares troops to support Serbia
42 The Crisis Germany demands that the Russian army stand down Germany declares war on Russia
43 Domino EffectAustria-Hungary blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and declared war on Serbia.Germany pledged their support for Austria –Hungary.Russia pledged their support for Serbia.
44 Domino Effect Germany declares war on Russia. France pledges their support for Russia.Germany declares war on France.Germany invades Belgium on the way to France.Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.