Presentation on theme: "Section IV: Wine Regions of the Southern Hemisphere Chapter 14: Australia and New Zealand."— Presentation transcript:
Section IV: Wine Regions of the Southern Hemisphere Chapter 14: Australia and New Zealand
Australia Today, Australia is the world’s sixth largest producer and home to nearly 2,000 wineries. Vineyards and population concentrated along southeast. Growth of wine industry fueled by exports. Large, multinational companies are responsible for the majority of wine production and innovation. Exports have a reputation for being full-bodied and fruity wines that are easy to drink and reasonably priced.
Australian Wine—Historical Perspective Small 3-acre vineyard established in 1791 20-acre vineyard established outside Sydney in 1820. Australian wine sent back to Britain in 1822. Lindemans and Penfolds wineries founded in 1840s. Wine business expanded in the 2 nd half of the 19 th century. Most of Australia was spared phylloxera devastation. WWII cut exports, and growth returned in 1960s.
Australian Wine—Historical Perspective (cont.) Production and potential increased during 1980s and 1990s. Rapidly growing market for Australian wines overseas. Modernization in 1970s and 1980s made for a higher quality product. Australian dollar became less favorable, making Australian wines more expensive in export markets. Oversupply of grapes sold at unsustainably low prices.
The Wine Regions of Australia Most of the continent is unsuitable for viticulture. Grape-growing regions are concentrated in the areas located in the valleys along the country’s southeastern coast between Sydney and Adelaide. The wines of Australia are labeled by the state they were grown in or by appellation of origin in a system called Geographic Indications. For a wine to be labeled as from a particular region, at least 85 percent of the grapes used to make the wine must be from that region.
New South Wales The 1st vineyards were planted in New South Wales. The state has 16 different wine regions and produces about one-third of Australia’s wine. The region produces many red varieties, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz being the most prominent. Principal white wines are Chardonnay and Semillon.
Victoria The wine industry of Victoria was begun by Swiss immigrants in the middle of the nineteenth century. By 1900, Victoria was producing the majority of Australia’s wine. Today Victoria grows 1/5 of Australia’s wine grapes. There are more than 800 wineries located throughout the state in 6 different wine zones and 20 wine regions.
South Australia Produces more than 46 percent of the nation’s wine Dominated by large producers Home to some of the country’s preeminent grape- growing regions
Western Australia Far from the urban centers and major grape growing regions to the east Home to nine wine regions and produces approximately 8 percent of Australia’s vineyard land Has some of the oldest grape-growing regions in the country and the longest operating winery
Tasmania First commercial vineyard was planted in 1823. Winemaking had all but disappeared by the 1860s. The industry was not reestablished until the 1950s. The Lalla Vineyard was planted on the Tamar River. Today, there are about 90 wineries on record, but only a few are of notable size. Two of the largest are Piper’s Brook Vineyard, established in 1974, and Tamar Ridge established in 1994. Red and white grapes are grown in equal portions. Chardonnay is the most common white wine grape and Pinot Noir makes up 90 percent of the red plantings.
New Zealand Grapes have been grown in New Zealand nearly as long as they have been in Australia, but there was little development until the 1970s. Anti-alcohol regulations More difficult growing conditions Poor winemaking practices Today New Zealand has a reputation for superior wines. Wines fetch a higher price on the international market. Sell for almost twice as much as Australian wines
New Zealand—Historical Perspective The first vinifera vines were planted on New Zealand’s North Island by Samuel Marsden in 1819. Commercial wine industry dates back to 1863 But was slow to develop At the end of the 19 th century, imported American grapes Vine and cellar practices produced poor quality wines fortified with alcohol to cover up inadequateness. Tariffs and legal restrictions also inhibited growth.
New Zealand—Historical Perspective (cont.) Things changed in 1970s with a greater emphasis on quality. Vineyards were replanted with superior-tasting grapes. Winemakers improved their techniques. Wine Institute of New Zealand was formed in 1975. Government acted to help improve quality of wine. Rapid growth period in 1980s and 1990s. Today New Zealand’s wines are popular throughout the world and often command high prices. It is also known for producing some of the world’s most intensely flavored Sauvignon Blanc.
The Wine Regions of New Zealand Weather all over the country is dominated by the influence of the ocean. New Zealand’s grape growing appellations are divided into ten growing regions, six on the North Island and four on the South Island. Historically, vineyards had been concentrated on the North Island. In recent decades extensive planting has resulted in the South Island having more vineyard acreage.
Gisbone Lies on the eastern edge of the North Island and produces about 8 percent of New Zealand’s wine Cool region best known for growing white varieties In recent years, smaller wineries have been moving into Gisborne. Concentrating on producing a higher quality product. Chardonnay is the most popular grape, accounting for over half of the region’s production. Pinot Gris is popular as well.
Hawkes Bay Second largest region in terms of wine production First commercial vineyards established in 1890s. Chardonnay is the most widely planted grape. Red varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir to do well. Sauvignon Blanc is also widely planted.
Marlborough Viticulture did not begin in the region until 1973. Since then, the Marlborough appellation has grown to hold 55 percent of New Zealand’s vineyards and produce 68 percent of the country’s wine. Has a reputation for producing some of the most strongly flavored Sauvignon Blancs in the world Most popular variety is Sauvignon Blanc The region is now home to more than 130 wineries.
Other New Zealand Wine Regions North Island appellations Auckland/Northland Waikato/Bay of Plenty Wairarapa/Martinborough South Island appellations Nelson Canterbury/Waipara Otago