# ECE2030 Introduction to Computer Engineering Lecture 1: Overview

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ECE2030 Introduction to Computer Engineering Lecture 1: Overview
Prof. Hsien-Hsin Sean Lee School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Tech

ECE2030 Syllabus Instructor: Prof. Hsien-Hsin “Sean” Lee
Course web: My office: Klaus 2318 Teaching Materials: Morris Mano and Charles Kime, “Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals,” the 4th edition Course notes and handouts (check out course web) TA: to be announced later Attending classes is important !!

3 Homework assignment: 5% each 1 Programming assignment: 10% 3 in-class exams: 15% each 1 final exam: 30% [100,90]=A; (90,80]=B; (80,70]=C,(70,55]=D,(55,0]=F Will scale… All homework: turn-in in the first 5 minutes “in class” of the due day All exams: closed books, closed notes, no calculator Honor code Use T-Square ( for your homework and exam grades

Objective: Digital Design Principle
Number systems Boolean algebra Switch and CMOS design Combinational logic Logic gates Building blocks: de/mux, de/encoder, shifters, adder/subtractor, multiplier Logic minimization Mixed logic Sequential logic Latches, Flip-flops Counters State machines: Mealy/Moore machines

Objective: Digital Design Principle
Memory and Programmable Devices Register, RAM, ROM, PLA, PAL Architectural concept Instruction set architecture (ISA) Stored-Program Computer and Sequential Control (von Neumann architecture) Datapath Branches Processor and Software Convention MIPS ISA Procedural calls: Stack

Hierarchy of Computation
Programming in High-Level Language Compiler/Assembler/ Linker Problem Algorithms Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) Binary System architecture Target Machine (one implementation) Micro-architecture Functional units/ Building blocks Gates Level Design Transistors Manufacturing

Hierarchy of Computation
Programming in High-Level Language Compiler/Assembler/ Linker Problem Algorithms Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) Binary Target Machine (one implementation) System architecture Micro-architecture Functional units/ Building blocks Human Level System Level RTL Level Gates Level Design Logic Level Circuit Level Silicon Level Transistors Manufacturing

Hierarchy of Computation
Programming in High-Level Language Compiler/Assembler/ Linker Problem Algorithms Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) Binary System architecture Target Machine (one implementation) Micro-architecture Functional units/ Building blocks Human Level System Level Our Focus in 2030 RTL Level Gates Level Design Logic Level Circuit Level Silicon Level Transistors Manufacturing

Zoom-in a System Component

Switch G D S John Bardeen William Shockley Walter Brattain Circa. 1947, Bell Labs Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

“The Tyranny of Numbers” Challenge
Inventors of Integrated Circuits “The Tyranny of Numbers” Challenge Robert Noyce Jack Kilby Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Fairchild Traitorous 8 Gordon E. Moore circa. 1965

Moore’s Law 1.7 billions Montecito 42millions Exponential growth 2,250
90 nm 596 mm2 Moore’s Law 2,250 10 μm 13.5mm2 42millions Exponential growth Transistor count will be doubled every 18 months  Gordon Moore, Intel co-founder

A Generic Intel-based PC System

Dual-Core Itanium 2 (Montecito)

Integrated Circuit Complexity
Source: Intel

Minimum Feature Size We are currently at 0.065µm (65nm) and moving towards 0.045µm

Average Transistor Price per year
Source: Dataquest

Processor Market Segmentation
High Performance (e.g., Intel 32/64, AMD, Itanium, IBM POWER, BlueGene, Sun T1, etc) Embedded / low-power (e.g., ARM, MIPS, Xscale) Special purpose (e.g., DSP, NVidia)

Analog Signal vs. Digital
So, why Digital?

Binary Signals So, why Binary?

Voltage Range of Binary Signals
5.0 Volts HIGH (1) HIGH (1) 4.0 Volts 3.0 Volts 2.0 Volts 1.0 Volts LOW (0) LOW (0) 0.0 Volts INPUT OUTPUT