Presentation on theme: "HEALTH INSURANCE Chapter 4 History of Health Insurance Re: As healthcare cost increased, there was a market for health ins. Primarily via group plans."— Presentation transcript:
History of Health Insurance Re: As healthcare cost increased, there was a market for health ins. Primarily via group plans. Until 1970s- insurance was an indemnity plan i.e. set fees for service e.g. visit $60. HMO act of 1973 changed that- managed care now determines which services will be covered, not the doctor. As of 2010, 56% get health ins. through their employers, majority of the rest via group plans, e.g. AARP, AAA, etc. Non- group plans, i.e. individual plans are cost prohibitive.
Health Reform 2010 “Obamacare” Health Insurance Exchanges If unaffordable: Subsidies available for those earning up to 400% of the federal poverty level, i.e. Family of 5 = $110,280 (poverty level for a family of 5 = 27,5700 Everyone must buy/have insurance or pay a fine enforced by the I.R.S. Small businesses – get tax credits to offer ins. Past Problems addressed by “Obamacare” Refusal of coverage Higher prices charged for pre-existing conditions Children coverage under adult extended to 26 Can’t drop people for getting ill Lifetime caps prohibited Annual limits restricted 55-64 insurance assistance (Medicare starts at 65)
Obamacare Incentives to specialize in family medicine (i.e. primary care) Tougher fraud laws Requires certain providers to serve at least 40% non- Medicare clients Increase Gov’t ability to require surety bonds to do business with Medicare Impose stronger civil and monetary penalties for fraud Increased power to investigate and audit insurance coverage and exchanges. Fingerprint and background checks required for some providers and suppliers. Checks on primary suppliers and providers Tougher to increase insurance premiums
Types of Health Insurance Indemnity or Fee-for-service Pay monthly premium Pay Doctor (no referrals) Submit a claim to get reimbursed You are paid a fixed amount before the insurance company pays (like an auto deductible). Deductible is typically yearly. There is a fixed amount charged for each service. e.g. –coinsurance = 80/20 so you pay the deductible, then 20%, then the insurance pays the rest (80%). There is a cap over which the insurance co. pays 100%
Catastrophic Insurance Designed for tragic event coverage Extremely high deductible Two Types: Comprehensive & Supplemental Comprehensive- more like traditional plans but usually no preventative services, high deductibles Supplemental to existing plans. May cover psychiatric care, nursing care, medical appliances, etc. Covers what it deems necessary.
Managed Care Health Maintenance Organizations Network of Providers, Service subject to approval by the HMO admin. Out-of-network not covered or covered to a lesser degree (in: 80/20 out: 70/30) Chart on page 79
C.O.B.R.A. (1986) Provides former employees, retirees, spouses, former spouses, and dependent children the right to temporary continuation of health coverage at group rates when coverage is lost due to certain events such as job loss, lay- offs, etc. It is generally more expensive as an employee is paying 100% of the premium. When employed, they usually paid a percentage of the premium. It is less expensive than individual insurance. Can carry it for 18 mos. (up to 36 in some situations). Costs 100% of premium plus 2% admin fee. Private sector employers with 20 or more employees are subject to the COBRA law
Medi-Gap Policies=private ins that pays for any “gaps” in costs that are not paid by Medicare (e.g. deductibles, co-pays, etc.) Medicaid- 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act Eligibility based on income and level of disability Federal and State Programs- states set eligibility guidelines ACA (Obamacare) requires states to include low income childless adults Medicaid – No. enrolled estimated to be 59 million in 2014 or 15.7% of the population Funded through Fed and State $$$$ Feds match state $$$ Feds pay 100% of costs of newly eligible individuals.
Medicaid Feds require minimum Medicaid package Physician services Hospital Family planning Health center services Nursing facility services Children must receive early diagnostic tests
C.H.I.P. State C hildren H ealth I nsurance P rogram Younger than 19 Income levels exceed Medicaid but not enough to buy private health insurance. (e.g. Florida – less than $2k per month or $24k per year Usually must be below the 200% poverty level NJ family of 3 making $37,000= poverty level So Chip eligibility would be family of 3 making less than $74,000 Have to pay a small premium or co-pay depending on income. Covers immunization & care for healthy babies at no cost 2008 4.7 million children eligible for Medicaid and CHIP were not enrolled by their parents.
Supplemental Plans Insurance for special situation:s Vision, Dental, Disability, Hospital indemnity insurance (Aflac)- pays a fixed amount per day in the hospital Long term care insurance- elimination period (6 mos.) Travel, Accident Insurance, etc.
Tax Advantaged Options Health Savings Accounts Contribute with pretax dollars $$$ used for medical expenses-e.g. deductibles, co- pays, LTC ins. It must be paired with a high deductible qualified Health Ins. Plan. Funds invested carry over from year to year. After 65 if withdrawn, they are taxed. There is a penalty if they are withdrawn before age 65. Flexible Spending Accounts- Funds deducted pre- tax so there is a tax advantage. They do not rollover. If you don’t use them, you lose them. Can be used to cover dental, vision, prescriptions, orthodontics, etc.