2 Solutions Homogeneous mixture Solvent – substance present in the largest amountSolute – substance present in the smallest amountAqueous solution – solutions with water as the solvent.
3 Types of Solutions Solute Solvent Example Gas Air ( O2, CO2 in N2) LiquidWater in airCarbonated beverages (CO2 in water)Vinegar (acetic acid in water)SolidSugar watersolidStainless steel (Cr and Ni in FeWhen something dissolves it dissociates – not all chemicals are soluble
4 SolubilityThe maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature.Factors that affect rate of Solubility (increase the rate of dissolving).PressureTemperaturePolarity
5 SolubilitySolutions can be classified into groups by how much solute is in solution.Saturated – contains as much solute as the solvent can hold at a given temperature.Unsaturated – less the maximum amount of solvent at a given temperature.Supersaturated – contains more solute than the solvent can hold at a given temperature.
6 Solution by Mass Percent Solutions are described by mass percent
7 Solutions by Mass Percent A solution is prepared by mixing 2.50 grams of calcium chloride with 50.0 grams of water. Calculate the mass percent of calcium chloride in this solution.
8 Solutions by Mass Percent A 75.0 gram sample of a solution is known to contain grams of glucose. Calculate the mass percent of glucose in this solution.
9 Solutions by Mass Percent Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid in water and typically contains 5.00% acetic acid by mass. Calculate the mass of acetic acid in a gram sample of vinegar.
10 Solutions by Mass Percent Concentrated hydrochloric acid solution contains % by mass HCl. What mass of HCl is contained in grams of concentrated HCl.
12 MolarityCalculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 15.6 gram of solid KBr in enough water to make 1.25 L of solution.
13 MolarityCalculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 2.80 grams of solid NaCl in enough water to make a 135 ml of solution
14 MolarityWhat mass of NaNO3 is required to make 2.50 Liter of a M solution of NaNO3?
15 MolarityWhat mass of (NH4)2SO4 is required to make liter of M solution of (NH4)2SO4?
16 Molarity-Ion Concentration Give the concentrations of all ions in each of the following solutions1.20 M Na2SO40.750 M K2CrO4
17 Molarity-Ion Concentration How many moles of Na+ ions are present in 42.0 ml of a M NaCl solution?
18 Molarity-Ion Concentration How many moles of Na+ ions are present in 42.0 ml of a M of Na3PO4 solution?
19 DilutionsProcess of adding more solvent to a solution. M1=molarity before dilution V1=volume before dilution M2=molarity after dilution V1=volume after dilution
20 DilutionWhat volume of 19 M NaOH must be used to prepare a 1.0 Liter of a 0.15 M NaOH solution?
21 DilutionWhat volume of water is needed to prepare ml of a M Ca(NO3)2 solution from a 5.00 M solution of Ca(NO3)2?
22 TitrationsCombining a solution of know concentration with a solution of unknown concentration to determine the unknown.Equivalence point – when the reactants are equal molar.Indicator – dyes used in titrations to indicate equivalence point.
23 TitrationsWhat volume of M HCO4 solution is needed to neutralize ml of M NaOH?15.00 ml of acetic acid is titrated with M NaOH. It takes ml of NaOH. What is the molarity of the acetic acid?How many grams of AgBr are formed when 35.5 ml of M AgNO3 are mixed with an excess of aqueous hydrobromic acid?