Presentation on theme: "Molecular Compounds Section 9.3 and Chapter 8. Nomenclature for Molecular Compounds When two NONMETALS are bonded together: 1.Write the names of the elements."— Presentation transcript:
Nomenclature for Molecular Compounds When two NONMETALS are bonded together: 1.Write the names of the elements in the order listed in the formula. 2.Use prefixes appropriately to indicate the number of each kind of atom. If there is one atom of the first element, DO NOT use mono- If there is a repeating vowel at the end of a prefix, the last letter of the prefix is sometimes dropped when the name of the element begins with a vowel. 3.End the name of the second element with the suffix –ide.
Molecules and Molecular Compounds Molecules and molecular compounds are held together by covalent bonds. It’s all about sharing electrons Molecular compounds are made up of representative units called molecules. Diatomic molecule: O 2, N 2, F 2,H 2, Cl 2, Br 2
Representing Molecules Molecular formulas show how many atoms of each element a substance contains- it is not always in the lowest whole number ratio (you do not need to simplify) A molecular formula does not tell you about a molecule’s structure.
The Octet Rule in Covalent Bonding In covalent bonds, electron sharing usually occurs so that atoms attain the electron configuration of noble gases. Use Lewis Dot Structures to represent bonds formed in molecular compounds. Draw the dot structure for each element Bond unshared pair of valence electrons so each atom has 8 surrounding valence electrons.
VSEPR Theory Valence-Shell Electron- Pair Repulsion theory The repulsion between electron pairs causes molecular shapes to adjust so that the valence electron pairs stay as far apart as possible. Explains the 3D shape of molecules
Bond Polarity Covalent bonds are formed by the sharing of electrons, but covalent bonds differ in how bonded atoms share electrons.
Nonpolar covalent bond Electrons are shared equally in the bond (all diatomic molecules have nonpolar covalent bonds)
Polar Covalent Bonds Electrons are NOT shared equally in the bond The more electronegative atom attracts electrons more strongly and gains a slightly negative charge. The less electronegative atom has a slightly positive charge.
Describe the bond polarity between the atoms of each pair. 1.C and O 2.Cl and F 3.Br and Br
Molecular Polarity (looking at the entire molecule) If there is a polar bond, then the entire molecule will most likely be polar molecule. Dipolar molecule- a molecule that has two poles
Molecular Polarity You must also consider the shape of the molecule. If the polarity arrows are point in the opposite direction, then it is a nonpolar molecule
Determine if the following molecules are polar or nonpolar. 1.N 2 2.NH 3 3.CH 3 OH 4.CH 4
Attractions between Molecules- Hydrogen bonds The strongest intermolecular force Hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom that is also weakly bonded to an unshared pair of another electronegative atom.
Attractions between Molecules- Dipole interactions Occur when polar molecules are attracted to one another
Attractions between Molecules- Dispersion forces Weakest of all molecular interactions Caused by the motion of electrons and occur between nonpolar molecules