Presentation on theme: "Inquiry in Biology for Secondary Schools Evelyn Teo"— Presentation transcript:
1 Inquiry in Biology for Secondary Schools Evelyn Teo 31 May – 2 June 2010
2 Content Overview Requirements of Secondary Science Curriculum Inquiry in BiologyContent OverviewRequirements of Secondary Science CurriculumWhat is Science Inquiry?Approaches to Science InquiryBSCS 5E Instructional ModelStrategies for Inquiry-based Learning and TeachingFrequently Asked Questions about InquiryClassroom Case Studies
3 What is inquiry-based learning? Inquiry in BiologyWhat is inquiry-based learning?“Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand”Joe Exline
4 What is inquiry-based learning? Seeking for truth, information or knowledgeSeeking information by questioningProcess of inquiring begins with gathering information through the human senses
5 Requirements of the Secondary Science Curriculum SCIENCE CURRICULUM FRAMEWORKThe Science Curriculum Framework is derived from thePolicy Framework for the Teaching and Learning of Science.It encapsulates the thrust of science education in Singaporeto prepare our students to be sufficiently adept as effectivecitizens, able to function in and contribute to an increasinglytechnologically-driven world.Central to the curriculum framework is the inculcation of thespirit of scientific inquiry. The conduct of inquiry is founded onthree integral domains of (a) Knowledge, Understanding andApplication, (b) Skills and Processes and (c) Ethics andAttitudes. These domains are essential to the practice ofscience. The curriculum design seeks to enable students toview the pursuit of science as meaningful and useful. Inquiryis thus grounded in knowledge, issues and questions thatrelate to the roles played by science in daily life, society andthe environment.The spirit of Scientific Inquiry
6 Requirements of Secondary Science Syllabus Scientific inquiry is defined as“…the activities and processes which scientists and students engage in to study the natural and physical world around us.” (MOE, 2008, p.12)Scientific inquiry consists of 2 critical processes:What (Content)How (Process)
7 Requirements of Secondary Science Syllabus Your students are expected to…1. ask questions w.r.t. daily life, society & environment2. collect and use evidences3. formulate and communicate explanationsScientific inquiry consists of 2 critical processes:
8 Requirements of the Secondary Science Curriculum MOE, 2008, p 12-13Use all or several of the essential features of science as inquiry in your lessons…Structure your approach towards the left of the table…GRADUALLY (to meet the needs of your students)
9 Requirements of the Secondary Science Curriculum Inquiry lessons are to involve…hands-on learning, from concrete to abstractsituate learning in realistic (authentic) contexts… so design learning activities that require activeengagements of students to DO something thatrelates to their REAL LIFE experiences…
10 What is Science Inquiry? Is science inquiry really that difficult & scary??List your concerns here:How we can overcome:
11 Objectives of this session Now that you are aware of the MOE’s requirements… let’s look at what else we can do…Is science inquiry really that difficult & scary??What are the known approaches of science inquiry?The 5E Learning model…one possible approach.What others have done using the 5E model…
12 Approaches to Science Inquiry Three possible approaches…The generative learning model (Osbourne & Freyberg, 1985)The interactive model (Faire & Cosgrove, 1988)The BSCS 5E modelDawson, V. & Venville, G. (2007). The art of teaching primary science. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
13 Approaches to Science Inquiry The generative learning model (Osbourne & Freyberg, 1985)
14 Approaches to Science Inquiry 2. The interactive model (Faire & Cosgrove, 1988)
16 Origins of BSCS 5E Instructional Model Inquiry in BiologyOrigins of BSCS 5E Instructional ModelBSCS = Biological Science Curriculum StudyTraced back to early 20th centuryBegins with the works of Johann Herbart on philosophy and psychologyLearning can be synthesized into an instructional model based on students’ current knowledge and their new ideas- connections between prior knowledge and new knowledge form ideasTeacher explains ideas that students did not discoverTeacher provides opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding
18 Components of The 5E Model 1) EngageProbe prior knowledge and concepts / misconceptionsGenerate a question to be investigated- ask a question about objects, organisms or events in the environmentTeacher to provide guidance in forming questions that can be investigated scientificallyActivity should(1) make connections between past and present learning experiences,(2) anticipate activities and focus students’ thinking on the learning outcomes of current activities.
19 Components of The 5E Model 2) ExplorePlan and conduct simple investigations, explore environment or manipulate materials.Use appropriate tools and techniques to collect relevant data.Provides students with experiences within which they identify and develop current concepts, processes, and skills.I NoticeI WonderWrite down observations and discoveriesWrite down questions that come to their mindI Notice / I Wonder Chart
20 Components of The 5E Model 3) ExplainProvides opportunities for students to verbalize their conceptual understanding, or demonstrate their skills or behaviours.Use data and scientific knowledge to generate explanations.- describe, reflect and give theories on observational dataProvides opportunities for teachers to introduce a formal label or definition for a concept, process, skill, or behaviour.
21 Components of The 5E Model 4) ElaborateExtends students’ conceptual understanding and allows further opportunity for students to practice desired skills and behaviours.Extend strategies, concepts, principles and explanations to new problem / question.- apply knowledge and skills in new situationsLearners are presented with new learning tasks and called on to use their developing knowledge to negotiate new task.Through new experiences, the students develop deeper and broader understanding, more information, and adequate skills.
22 Components of The 5E Model 5) EvaluateDemonstrate knowledge, understanding and ability to use inquiry strategies through formative and summative assessments.- communicate investigations, data and explanations to othersProvides a basis for decisions on how to improve learning and teaching.Encourages students to assess their understanding and abilitiesProvides opportunities for teachers to evaluate student progress towards achieving educational objectives.
23 Strategies for Inquiry-based Learning and Teaching Brainstorming- generate creative ideas and solutionsCase Study- Develop critical skills (analysing, inferring, communicating)Concept Mapping- present meaningful relationships among concepts- organise and link concepts / ideasDemonstration- each students assumes certain responsibilities and contributes to completion of tasks- in working with others, students are exposed to different views and solutions to accomplish a common goalField Trip- students explore, discover and experience science in everyday life
24 Strategies for Inquiry-based Learning and Teaching Games- simulate learning of concepts or skills- help students to visualise or illustrate objects / processes in real worldInvestigation- students mirror how scientists think, what they do in decision making process (ask questions, plan / design investigationsLearning Centres- activities may be designed to accommodate a variety of learning styles and challenge multiple intelligencesMindmapping- branches connect related concepts / ideas to central image- visual presentation of related information enhances understanding
25 Strategies for Inquiry-based Learning and Teaching Model Building- design and construct a representation of a concept / objectProblem Solving- engages students in finding solutions to problems by applying scientific knowledge and skillsProjects- require students to find out about an object, event, process / phenomenon over timeQuestioning- useful tools in scientific inquiry processRole Play, Drama, Dance and Movement- allows students to express understanding of scientific concepts and processes in a creative way
26 Strategies for Inquiry-based Learning and Teaching Strategies for Active and Independent Learning (SAIL)- emphasises learning as a formative and developmental process- instruction and assessment point the way for students to continuously learn and improve- learning expectations and rubrics are used
27 Features of an Inquiry Classroom TraditionalInquiryStudents often work aloneStudents often work in groupsEmphasis on mastery of factsEmphasis on understanding of key conceptsFollows a fixed curriculum closelyAllows for pursuit of student questionsActivities rely mainly on workbook and textbook materialsActivities rely on primary sourcesStudents are viewed as ‘blank states’Students are viewed as thinkers with their own theories about the worldTeachers tend to disseminate information to studentsTeachers facilitate an interactive learning environmentTeachers tend to seek correct answersTeachers seek to understand students’ learningAssessment tends to be separate from teachingAssessment is interwoven with teaching
28 Frequently Asked Questions About Inquiry In inquiry-based teaching, is it okay to tell students the answers to their questions?Is in more important for students to learn the abilities of scientific inquiry or scientific concepts and principles?How can teachers cover everything in the curriculum if they use inquiry-oriented materials and teaching methods?
29 Frequently Asked Questions About Inquiry Inquiry in BiologyFrequently Asked Questions About InquiryWhat can teachers do who are provided only traditional instructional materials?Where can teachers get the equipment, materials and supplies they need to teach thorough inquiry?How can teachers improve their use of inquiry in science teaching?What barriers are encountered when implementing inquiry-oriented approaches?
30 Inquiry in the Classroom Inquiry in BiologyInquiry in the ClassroomTurn to classroom case studies and read the six scenarios.Review the summary of observations and answer the questions.