2 Project Definition A defined starting point A single defined ending pointClearly distinct from regular operational activitiesA project is any undertaking which has a single defined starting point and a single defined ending point, and which is clearly distinct from regular operational activities.
3 Project Management Elements ObjectivesTimelinesResourcesControlled via Project PlanSignificant projects are built around a set of elements such as objectives, timelines, and resources. Managing a project means controlling these elements via a project plan.
4 Project Management Elements Planning out of the projectMonitoring the actual situation against the planTaking corrective action if the situation does not correspond with the plan
5 Organizational Characteristics for Successful Projects Good communicationQualityOwnership and accountabilityTask planning and allocationAccountability for achieving resultsPerformance monitoringEfficient use of resourcesAccess to the knowledge and skills of specialistsDecision makingMotivation and development of peopleRoutine operations as well as the specific projectOwnership and management of meetings
6 Roles and Responsibilities Owner – often a senior manager who allocates resources, steers, and provides the link to the business.Project Manager – responsible for achieving project objectives and tasks using resources effectively.Team – individuals who work separately and together to further the objectives of the project.It is helpful to have a project organization chart showing all responsibilities. This should be communicated early in the project.Large projects may be sub-divided into smaller ones, each with a leader, a team, and a defined subject of the overall project.
7 Project Management Triangle If a project is to succeed, it must satisfy the demands of time, cost, and scope.ScopeAll three sides of the triangle must be given adequate consideration before the project is begun.If any side of the triangle changes, at least one other must change as well. If one changes without the others, the quality of the deliverable is at risk.TimeCost
8 Planning a ProjectThe more planning up front, the less time spent reworking project later.10-20% of project is planning.Up front planning is critical to the success of any project. When more planning is done up front, less time is spent reworking the project down the line. Generally, between 10 and 20 percent of the life of the project should be spent in planning.
9 Project Management Process This model of Project Management includes a foundation of built-in, continuous improvement. Each of these activities could be considered a project by itself.
10 Project Initiation Objectives are formed Relationship to greater organization establishedRisks assessedCosts (financial and other) examinedProject Initiation occurs before a project is activated during which the factors that may play a critical role in the life of the project are examined to determine project viability.This is also where the project objectives are formed.Other factors which are examined during this time are:The relationship of the project to the organization's needs and/or business planPotential riskThe level of involvement (time, human resources, materials, cost, etc.)
11 Information Gathering Asking questionsUnderstanding required effortAnswers the “why” questions about the projectContinues for the life of the projectInformation Gathering is a structured and disciplined approach to asking questions, getting answers, and understanding the effort being requested on a project. It ensures that reasons for doing a project are accurate and answers the "why" questions which come up during the project.While Information Gathering happens at the beginning, it should also occur on an ongoing basis throughout the project.
12 Information Gathering InterviewsSurveysBrainstormingReviewing past projectsInformation Gathering can take the form of:Interviews with stakeholdersSurveysBrainstorming sessionsReviewing information about past projects
13 Activate The Planning Process This is the planning process, often done by management, focusing on developing a plan for the project to follow.
14 Document of Understanding (DOU) Project objectivesWork Breakdown StructureTime and cost estimatesProposed scheduleA DOU puts the information gathered into a structured format for stakeholders to review. It includes the project objectives, a work breakdown structure, estimates of time and cost, and a proposed schedule.
15 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Show project divided into components and work packagesCommon framework for communicationAllocates responsibilityA WBS graphically illustrates the work needed to achieve project objectives. Showing the project subdivided into manageable work packages, components, or elements, it provides a common framework for communication. It also allocates responsibility, monitoring, and management.
16 Estimate Predicts time and cost An estimate predicts the time and cost of a task, activity, or project. Its accuracy is limited due to a variety of uncertainties and unforeseen events.
17 Schedule Predicts time it will take to complete tasks The schedule predicts the time it will take to complete identified tasks based on task dependencies, staff resources, and assignments.
18 Baseline The Agreement Event The baseline marks the agreement event. It is often considered the hand-off between management and the project manager.
19 Present to Stakeholders Written Document of UnderstandingDone in personInformation about the project is presented to stakeholders, preferably in the form of a written Document of Understanding. It should also be presented in person to curtail misinterpretation.
20 NegotiateDetails about the project are settled between the Owner, Project Manager, Team Members, and Stakeholders as appropriate.
22 Control The Tracking Process Control is the tracking process. It is often neglected once the project is underway, but it integral to success. It also helps in preparation for future projects.
23 Update DOU Plan updated Performance reviewed Future actions projected This is the updating of the status of the plan, generally done cyclically (can be hourly, weekly, or monthly). Actual progress is compared to planned tasks, performance to date is reviewed, and future actions are projected.
24 Change Control Changes will occur Plan for change Document the events leading to the changeMake a plan for managing change once it occursPlan to re-planDone on a per change request basis, this is the reviewing, approving, implementing, and updating of the DOU. Each change request should be managed as a mini-project within the confines of the overall project. It is also necessary to realize and incorporate the following points in order to maximize a proactive rather than a reactive response.
25 Project Closure Measuring Success Project closure compares project delivery to the project plan. This is used to measure the success of this project and to aid in the improvement of future projects.
26 Questions to Ask What did we do right? What did we do wrong? What did we learn?
27 Post Project Evaluation Were project objectives met?Was project completed within budget?Was project completed according to schedule?Did project impact other projects or normal business operation?A post project evaluation consists of reviewing project tasks and results and assessing them with respect to project plans and budgets. The results of the evaluation determine how issues can be handled differently (or the same) in the future. Evaluation criteria include these.Ideally, the evaluation includes a meeting of participants to discuss the questions above and results in a written report detailing outcomes and recommendations for future projects.