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Chapter 20 Flexibility.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 Flexibility."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20 Flexibility

2 Flexibility Flexibility refers to the total range of motion (ROM) of a joint or group of joints. The ability of a joint to move freely through the full range of motion. It differs from person to person and from joint to joint. What affects the extent of movement around a given joint? Structural characteristics of the joint Mechanical properties of the connective tissues

3 Flexibility The GOAL should be to optimize joint mobility while maintaining joint stability. Primary FOCUS should be on the systematic, safe and effective application of the range of motion techniques used. You should be able to communicate to the client WHY they should devote time to improving flexibility It will enhance their program.

4 Flexibility Keep the requirements of the activity in mind
A person’s activity level alone will not improve flexibility Stretching exercises are essential if flexibility is to be maintained or increased

5 Benefits of Flexibility Training
Increases Range of Motion Reduction of lower back pain and injury Reduction in the incidence & severity of injuries Improved posture & muscle symmetry Delay in the onset of muscular fatigue Prevents or alleviates muscle soreness post exercise Increases the level of certain skills & muscular efficiency Picking something up off the floor Promotes mental relaxation

6 Flexibility It must be based upon the needs of the client.
Deliberate stretching should be done AFTER a general warm-up, but BEFORE the primary bout BUT…. It is dependant upon the activity to be performed. Stair climbing vs. Basketball

7 General Warm Up Full body rhythmic activities Low-moderate intensities
~ 5 minutes Increase core temp Should not lead to fatigue

8 Specific Warm Up Specific warm up for the activity ~ 10 minutes

9 Factors Affecting Flexibility
Joint Structure Age Gender Muscle & Connective Tissue Exercise History Temperature Resistance Training Pregnancy

10 Joint Structure Joint Structure
Some joints allow more range than others

11 Age & Gender Young more flexible than older
Females more flexible than men Youth become less flexible between ages 10-12 Childhood is the ideal time to start a flexibility program Seniors lose flexibility due to inactivity

12 Muscle & Connective Tissue
Tendons, ligaments, fascia, joint capsules, skin Elasticity – the ability to return to original resting length after passive stretch Plasticity – the tendency to assume a new and greater length after passive stretch Hyperlaxity – allows the joints to achieve a ROM that exceeds the normal range of motion

13 F.I.T. of Stretching 2 times per week, for 5 weeks, has been shown to improve flexibility Varies depending upon the sport / activity General warm up for ~ 5 minutes Activity specific warm up ~ 10 minutes Post activity stretching ~ 5 minutes Hold each stretch for about 30 seconds Do 4 reps

14 Proprioceptors & Stretching
Muscle Spindles Within muscle Causes stretch reflex Muscle contracts when stretch too fast Golgi Tendon Organs MT Junction Produces inverse stretch reflex Relaxes muscle when there is too much tension

15 Types of Stretching Static – slow & steady
Ballistic - bouncing type movements Dynamic – avoids bouncing but includes movements specific to the activity PNF – generally involves a 10 s passive stretch followed by the specific technique: Hold-Relax Contract-Relax

16 Static Stretching Most commonly used Safe & effective
Muscle gradually stretched to the point of mild tension If discomfort is felt, back off a little Does not activate the stretch reflex Beginners should hold the stretch for s; progress to 30 s Longer holds do not reap more rewards Significant improvements can occur Repeat 3-5 times

17 Ballistic Stretching Rapid, jerky, uncontrolled movement
Difficult to control the motion Higher risk of injury No longer considered acceptable however, is appropriate for some activities Disadvantages: Increased danger of exceeding the extensibility limits of involved tissues Higher energy requirements Greater chance of causing muscle soreness Activation of the stretch reflex

18 Dynamic Stretching Similar to ballistic but avoids bouncing
Puts an emphasis on functionally based movements Includes movements specific to the activity Example  lunge walk Requires balance and coordination Clients may experience muscle soreness initially

19 PNF Stretching Widely accepted as an effective method for increasing range of motion Performed with a partner Uses both passive movement & active muscle action Technique: Take the muscle into a static stretch while relaxing muscle Hold stretch for 10 s, then contract muscle for 6 s with a strong isometric contraction against partner Following a 1-2 s rest, repeat another 30 s passive stretch Repeat

20 Summary Assess client’s flexibility to pinpoint strengths & weakness
Design program that stretches the specific muscles used by the client during activity Warm up before stretching to increase temp Perform stretches daily Stretch all major muscle groups and opposing groups

21 Summary Focus on technique during the stretch
Hold stretches for seconds initially; later 30 seconds Do 4 reps each stretch for optimal gains Stretch to mild discomfort, not pain Keep breathing slow and rhythmical during stretch Stretch muscles in different positions and planes Stretch after primary bout

22 Stretching Body Regions
Neck Shoulders & Chest Torso Upper Back Lower Back Hips Posterior Arm Anterior Thigh & Hip Flexor Posterior Thigh Adductors “Groin” Calf


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