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Kingdoms Fungi and Plantae

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdoms Fungi and Plantae"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdoms Fungi and Plantae

2 Fungi are… organisms that consume food – mainly breaking down dead and decaying matter organisms that have a nucleus organisms that have a cell wall Mention that organisms that break down dead and decaying matter are heterotrophs and decomposers (no need to know the terms well yet) A nucleus is the control center – some cells have them and others do not Cell walls are extra protection for the cell – plants have this in common with fungus Picture 1: picture of mushrooms you may find in your backyard or in the grass outside – more common understanding of what a fungus is Picture 2: picture of mold cultures growing on a petri dish in a science lab

3 Think-Pair-Share With your partner, list the 5 ways that fungus might be classified. (Reflect back on your notes on classification). After discussion, place a star next to those used to classify fungus.

4 Think – Pair – Share Answer
Behaviors Biochemistry – the DNA Embryology Physical Characteristics Evolutionary History (Phylogeny) Fungi are mainly classified by their reproductive methods and their structures. In this case, the reproductive methods would fall under behaviors (as it really is the manner in which they reproduce) as well as physical (they may not have a structure to reproduce a particular way). The structures will be further examined in class today.

5 Major Structures Discuss the structures on this slide – have the students write after with the next slide or write while on the slide and provide the next slide as reinforcement Reproductive structure is the fruiting body Hyphae – tiny filaments that make up the fungus Mycelium – many hyphae tangled together Fruiting Body – Reproductive structure that develops from a mycelium and grows below ground

6 Major Structures Hyphae – tiny filaments that make up the fungus
Mycelium – many hyphae tangled together Fruiting Body – Reproductive structure that develops from a mycelium and grows below ground

7 Check for Understanding
With your partner, label the following diagram with the major structures of a fungus Record answers on the board – use active inspire with this

8 Common Molds Sexually reproducing fungi
Hyphae generally lack cell walls Examples: black bread mold Picture 1: Black Bread Mold – what you may think of when you think of mold Picture 2: Zoomed in microscope image of black bread mold – this is what they “really” look like

9 Sac Fungi Reproduce both sexually and asexually
Can be unicellular and multicellular Examples: Cup Fungus, Yeasts Picture 1: Cup fungus – these are multicellular examples of sac fungi Picture 2: Yeasts – these are unicellular examples of fungi – used in baking

10 Club Fungi These fungi can be edible
This is an extremely diverse category of fungus Examples: Orange Jelly, Shelf Fungus, Mushrooms Picture 1: Orange Jelly Fungus – Picture was taken in Arizona – you often find this fungus growing on the ground or up in trees Picture 2: Shelf Fungus – This type of fungus can be seen forming structures that look like shelves on trees and logs

11 Imperfect Fungi All fungi that are not placed into other groups (phyla) are placed here NEVER been shown to have a sexual life cycle Example: Penicillium Picture: Penicillium being grown in a lab in a petri dish – Ask students if they know a common use for this type of fungus

12 Interactions with the Environment
Decomposers – break down dead matter into the nutrients that make it up Nutrient recyclers Positive relationship with trees Cause famine, and disease in plants, animals, and humans 1. Decomposers – they break down the dead into important nutrients 2. Nutrient recyclers – they provide plants with important nutrients needed for growth – they take these nutrients from the decaying matter to reuse or recycle them 3. Positive relationship – they live on trees and can actually make nutrients available to trees that trees would typically have difficulty obtaining on their own 4. Negative – causing famines and diseases

13 Upper left hand corner: moss
Upper right corner: mature fern with sori (reproductive) Bottom middle: flowering plant

14 Most plants… Autotrophs – make their own food Have a NUCLEUS!
Multicellular Have a cell wall The image is a lily – ask students to think about how they know a lily has at least one of these characteristics

15 Plants make a move from water to land!
Evolved from organisms like green algae Evolution required adaptations Waxy Cuticle – protects from water loss Vascular tissue – helps move water and nutrients through the plant Seeds/Flowers – allows for sexual reproduction We will discuss the vascular tissue and seeds and flowers more later Note: the waxy cuticle is why the stem of a flower feels as smooth and slippery as it does

16 Non-Vascular Plants Lack specialized tissue to help move food and water Very short Examples: mosses, liverworts, hornworts  Picture: liverworts – growing both on the ground and up the tree a bit; these plants are located very close to the ground – this means they do not get a lot of sunlight and are much more simplistic in structure in order to allow them to reproduce and survive

17 Vascular Plants Xylem and Phloem move water and food
All have true roots, leaves, and stems Some are seedless: Some have seeds: angiosperms, gymnosperms Seeds allow the plant to reproduce without water Picture 1: horsetail – a seedless plant that reproduces through spores Picture 2:spruce tree cones – the cones of a spruce tree contain the seeds to grow new trees – flowering plants produce seeds as well from which new trees grow – these seeds just look different in appearance

18 Check for Understanding
With your partner, hypothesize why it was important for vascular tissue to develop in land-dwelling plants. There is not ONE correct answer! Enabled plants to grow taller, allowed plants to get nutrients more easily, allowed plants to grow deeper roots to access water because it can move throughout the plant, provided plants with more structure and support

19 Gymnosperms Angiosperms
Any plants that bear their seeds directly on the surface of cones Examples: ginkgoes, cycads Angiosperms Picture 1: gingko tree – you can see the fruit with the leaves in the image Picture 2: apple tree – if you look carefully you can see the flowers and the fruit on this tree Known as flowering plants, any plant that bears seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seeds Examples: apple tree, rose Two types: monocots, dicots

20 Monocots Single cotyledon (seed leaves)
The veins of the leaves run parallel Floral parts (petals) occur mostly in multiples of 3 Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem Fibrous roots

21 Dicots Two cotyledons (seed leaves) Leaves have branched veins
Flower parts (petals) occur often in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular bundles arranged in a ring Roots function like a taproot

22 Key Plant Parts Anther – oval sac where pollen is found
Filament – long, thin stalk that supports anther Stigma – sticky portion at top of style Petal – attract insects and pollinators to flower Sepal – protect the flower while it develops Ovary – surrounds the ovule (female reproductive portion of the plant)

23 Check for Understanding
With your partner, label the following picture below with the following terms anther, filament, stigma, style, petal, sepal, ovary, ovule. (You are hypothesizing the location based on the functions we discussed.)


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