Presentation on theme: "Grammar: Keys to being successful writers Phrases Clauses Sentence fragments Commas."— Presentation transcript:
Grammar: Keys to being successful writers Phrases Clauses Sentence fragments Commas
Phrases (pg. 45) group of words NOT containing a subject AND a verb Types of phrases –Prepositional –Participle –Gerunds –Infinitive –Appositives
Prepositional Phrases uses preposition and noun –Adjective---prep. phrase modifies noun or pronoun Tucson has been the locale of many Westerns. Answers who, what or how many –Adverb---prep. phrase modifies verb, adj. or adv. Tina exercises with care. [how does she exercise] Tina exercises before breakfast. [when she exercises] Answers how, when, where, to what extent or why
Participle Phrase verb form that can be used as an adjective Verbal may end in –ing or –ed. Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river bank.
Gerund Phrase verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun Walking is a healthful exercise. Writing that thank-you letter was a good idea.
Infinitive Phrase verb form that begins with to used as a noun or modifier To leave would be rude. No one wants to stay. Democrats expect Barack Obama to win the Presidential election. ***Don’t confuse the to with the infinitive with the to of a prepositional phrase
Appositive (interrupter) noun or pronoun, often with modifiers, set beside another noun or pronoun to explain it further My brother’s car, a sporty red hatchback with bucket seats, is the envy of my friends. ***Notice, an appositive is always set off by commas before and after the appositive.
Exercises to complete for homework Pg. 62 Ex. C Pg. 66 Post Test 2
Clauses (pg. 67) group of words containing a subject and a predicate and is used as a part of speech Types –Independent –Subordinate (dependent)
Independent clauses can stand alone. When removed from its sentence, an independent clause makes complete sense. It was a hot, sunny weekend, and all the beaches were packed. –2 independent clauses joined with a conjunction
Subordinate clause Cannot stand alone because it is an incomplete thought. Still has a subject and verb, just doesn’t make sense without the independent clause Whoever knows the song may join in. We sang “Green Grow the Lilacs,” which is my favorite song of the West.
Conjunction Junction Independent clauses can be joined with conjunctions –AND, OR, BUT, NOR, FOR Subordinate clauses can begin with subordinating conjunctions
Subordinating Conjunctions After Although As As if As long as As though Because Before If In order thatWhere Provided thatWherever SinceWhether So thatWhile Than Though****MEMORIZE Unless THESE!!!!!!!! Until When Whenever
The Comma (pg. 795) Why can I never remember if I need a comma or not? Well, the human brain can only retain 7+/- 2 bits of information and there are several comma rules and sub-rules So let’s review when we need a comma…
Items in a Series Between independent clauses when a conjunction is used. Set off nonessential clauses or participial phrases Introductory elements Interrupters Dates and addresses Salutations After a name followed by Jr., Sr., PhD., etc…
Items in a Series 3 or more items need commas Do put a comma before the and at the end of the list of items (Oxford Comma) She had been to Paris, Rome, and Madrid Separate 2 or more adjectives preceding a noun She is a creative, intelligent executive.
Joining 2 Independent clauses (2 complete sentences) Use a comma and conjunction Comma always comes before the conjunction The first chapter is slow-moving, but the rest of the story is full of action and suspense.
Subordinating Conjunctions After Although As As if As long as As though Because Before If In order thatWhere Provided thatWherever SinceWhether So thatWhile Than Whenever Though****MEMORIZE Unless THESE!!!!!!!! Until When When these begin a sentence, the comma comes after the clause. When these are in the middle of a sentence the comma comes before the conjunction. Exceptions to the rule---typically, because, since, or when in the middle of a sentence need no comma
WARNING When there are simply 2 verbs (like in a compound sentence) DO NOT use a comma The teacher called my parents and left a message on the voicemail. ***Notice: there is not a second subject so there is not a second independent clause
Nonessential Elements If part of the sentence (clause) is nonessential to the meaning of the sentence, it is considered an interrupter and should be set off by commas Carla Harris, who was offered scholarships to three colleges, will go to Vassar in the fall. BUT, if the clause is essential to clarifying the meaning, you do not use a comma New Orleans is the city which interests me most.
Introductory Elements Use a comma after Well, yes, no, why, when they begin a sentence After a participial phrase –Giggling like a child, he wrapped the last present. ***Notice---do not confuse a gerund that ends in –ing acting as a subject with a participial phrase. Gerund has no comma after it. –Painting my room was hard but fun.
If more than one prep. phrase starts a sentence, use a comma More examples –After the game we all went to eat ice cream. –With athletes in training, injuries are common.
Interrupters Use with appositives –An interview with John McCain, the Republican nominee for President, will appear Sunday in the Edwardsville Intelligencer, our local paper. Parenthetical expressions (see pg 804)
Conventional uses Dates and addresses –Write to me at 6161 Center Grove Road, Edwardsville, Illinois, 62025, after the first of the month. When only the month and day or month and year are used, DO NOT use a comma. After salutation –Dear Ms. Haskins, After a name that has Jr., Sr., etc.. –Peter Grundel, Jr. –Lorraine Henson, Ph.D.
Types of Sentences Simple Compound Complex Compound-complex
Simple sentences (See Spot run! Go Spot go!) One independent clause and no subordinate clauses Great literature stirs the imagination.
Compound sentences Two or more independent clauses but no subordinate clauses Great literature stirs the imagination, and it challenges the intellect. Great literature stirs the imagination; moreover, it challenges the intellect.
Complex sentences One independent and at least one subordinate clause Great literature, which stirs the imagination, also challenges the intellect.
Compound-complex sentence Two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause Great literature, which challenges the intellect, is sometimes difficult, but it is also rewarding.