Presentation on theme: "The EU 2020 Renewable Energy Directive"— Presentation transcript:
1 The EU 2020 Renewable Energy Directive By Jessica Bejerea
2 The Problem Dependency on imports Dependency on limited fossil fuels The impact of fossil fuels on the environmentObligations under Kyoto ProtocolOnly 8.5% of the energy produced by the EU 27 comes from renewable energy sources
3 The Problem“The challenges of transforming Europe’s energy system remain urgent and daunting: the EU currently imports approx. 55% of its energy – and might reach 70% in the next 20 to 30 years. In 2030 the EU will be importing 84% of its gas, 59% of its coal and 94% of its oil. In these circumstances, it is obvious that the challenge to satisfy our energy needs is big.” - The European Renewable Energy Council, “RE-Thinking 2050: A 100% Renewable Energy Vision for the European Union”
4 In 2009 The EU Issued a Directive That Promotes the use of Energy from Renewable Sources PurposesReduce greenhouse gas emissions and comply with the Kyoto ProtocolPromote energy securityPromote technological development and innovationCreate job opportunities and regional development, especially in rural and isolated areas
5 The EU’s 2020 Directive Has Three Primary Objectives Reduce GHGs 20% below 1990 levelsReduce emissions by 20% by improving energy efficiency, andIncrease the share of energy derived from renewables to 20%
6 How it Will be Accomplished Each of the 27 EU States is assigned a series of individualized progressive “targets” starting with 2011Each State must submit a National Renewable Energy Action Plan by June 2010Statistical TransfersJoint projects between member States and with third countries
7 How it Will be Accomplished Guarantees of originAccess to the electricity grid for energy from renewable sourcesSustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids
8 EU Renewable Energy Targets Are Similar in Principle to Renewable Portfolio Standards in the US 28 US states have binding standards5 states have non-binding standards (ND, SD, UT, VA, and VT)Maine (40% by 2017) and California (33% by 2030) have the most stringent requirementsIllinois25% by 2025Eligible Renewable: Solar Thermal Electric, Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, BiodieselInvestor Owned Electric Utilities: 75% of the standard must come from windAlternative retail electric suppliers: 60% of the standard must come from wind
9 EU 27 in 2005Percentage of energy derived from renewable energy sources in 2005
10 EU 27 in 2020Percentage of energy to be derived from renewable energy sources in 2020
11 2007 Share of Technologies of the Overall Renewable Electricity Portfolio for Each Member State *Hydro does not include pumped storage.
12 State Action PlansStates must identify the percentage of renewable energy that it will procure from three sectors:TransportElectricity*Heating and coolingStates must identify the technology mix that they will use to meet their targetsThe plans must also include a list of activities that the member state will implement to meet its targetIf a member state fails to meet an indicative trajectory target it must submit an amended action plan*excludes electricity produced in pumped storage units from water that has previously been pumped uphill.
13 State Action Plans: Analysis* 45% of the renewable energy target will be met by the electricity sector41% to be derived from wind29% onshore (approximately)12% offshore (approximately)31% from hydropower18% from biomass9% from solar energy (mostly Solar photovoltaic)Combined data for 21 countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Slovenia and the United Kingdom.
14 State Action Plans: Analysis* 43% of the mandate will be met in the heating and cooling sector80% to be derived from biomass12% will be met in the transportation sector66% Biodiesel22% Bioethanol10% renewable electricity*Combined data for 21 countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Slovenia and the United Kingdom.
15 Further AnalysisEstimated that 10 Member States will exceed their 2020 targetsFive Member States anticipate a deficitOverall, EU will exceed the 20% renewable energy mandate by more than 0.3 percentage points
16 Specific State Action Plans United KingdomGermanySpain
17 State Action Plans: United Kingdom 15% 2020 targetCurrent sectoral targets:30% electricity12% heating/cooling, and10% transportationHow the UK will attain its targetObtain financial support for renewable energyRemove barriers to delivery of renewable energyDevelop and invest in new technologies
18 State Action Plans: United Kingdom Obtain financial support for renewable energyIncludes a system of feed-in tariffs in electricityRenewable Obligation Certificates andUK will potentially establish a Green Investment Bank to help fund the introduction of renewable energyRemove barriers to deliveryMake the grid “smarter” in part by rolling out smart meters
19 State Action Plans: United Kingdom Develop new technologiesdevelop an offshore electricity gridencouraging the development and commercialization of marine energy (tidal and wave) over the coming decadenetwork of marine energy parks
21 State Action Plans: Germany 18% 2020 targetCurrent sectoral targets:38.6% electricity15.5% heating/cooling, and13.2% transportationCombined -> 19.6%Estimated 1.6% renewable energy surplus can be used in cooperative projects or statistical transfer
22 State Action Plans: Germany Germany will develop solar energy to help meet its 2020 renewable energy targets for the electricity sector
23 State Action Plans: Germany Heating and cooling2005 – 94% biomassBy 2020 the mix will become diversified79% biomass9% Solar thermal energy8% heat pumps
24 State Action Plans: Spain 20% 2020 target8.7% in 2005Current sectoral targets:40% electricity;18.9% heating/cooling; and13.6% transportation22.7% renewable energy surplus that can be used in cooperative projects or statistical transfer
25 State Action Plans: Spain Planned projects includeInvest in R&D for innovation in energy storage systems.Develop marine technologies to increase the potential of marine renewable energies, and remove barriers to developing marine energy projectsAdopt a smart grid system of transmission and distributionEstablish international interconnections with France and Portugal
26 The EU Pledged to Increase Their Targets If Other Developed Countries Agree to Reduce Emissions Each objective would increase to 30%The additional reduction would come from improved demand-side efficiency and a reduction of carbon-intensive supply-side investments
27 If They Succeed …The EU community would serve as a renewable energy role model for other countriesThe European Renewable Energy Council: 100% renewables by 2050!
28 EREC 100% by 2050How to get to 100%Full liberalization of the energy marketUse smart gridsHybrid energy solutionsVirtual power plantsEliminate all subsidies for fossil and nuclear energyEU wide carbon taxTransportation: shift from oil to hydrogen and electricity with almost complete reliance on renewable electricity by 2050