2 Tell Me… What is intelligence? Do you consider yourself to be an intelligent person? Why or why not?Describe three things you are “more intelligent” at.Describe three things you are “less intelligent” at.Do you believe others view you as an intelligent person? Why or why not?
3 IntelligenceInferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to…profit from experience,acquire knowledge,think abstractly,act purposefully, oradapt to changes in the environment
4 The “g factor”Most scientists believe that a general ability, or g factor, underlies the specific abilities and talents measured by intelligence tests.Difference from specific ability (s)Others dispute thisArgue that a person can excel in some tasks, yet perform poorly in othersG
5 Intelligence Testing Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon Hired by French gov’tGoal: Identify children who would not benefit from a traditional school setting & would benefit from special education services
6 Intelligence TestingBinet’s theory: As we age, we become more sophisticated in the ways we think about the worldEX: 6 year old would answer questions differently than an 8 year old.
7 Intelligence Testing Result: Children were assigned a “mental age” What a person of a particular age should knowAim was to use test to help children, not label them
8 Development of the IQ Test Lewis Terman used Binet’s research to construct modern day IQ test called “Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test”Measures memory, vocabulary, perceptual discriminationIntelligence Quotient (IQ) =Mental AgeChronological AgeX 100
9 So… Mental Age X 100 Chronological Age If an 8-year-old has a mental age of 10, what is her IQ?If a 12-year-old has a mental age of 9, what is his IQ?If a boy has the mental age of 10 and an IQ of 200, how old is he?Mental AgeChronological AgeX 100
10 Mental Retardation vs. Genius Mental retardation: IQ below 70Genius: IQ above 130
11 Eugenics Binet’s IQ test messily intertwined with concept of eugenics Goal of improving genetic makeup of a population by reducing or eliminating allegedly inferior genes“Social Darwinism”Survival of the fittest (genes)
12 ExampleJerk.American psychologist Henry Goddard sought to limit immigration of “inferior people” to the U.S.Tested immigrants at Ellis Island1917: Reports that 40-50% of immigrants “feebleminded”Yikes.
13 Wechsler TestsDavid Wechsler develops another set of age-based intelligence tests.Does not use same formula as Stanford-Binet, but does use same scoring system.Provided specific scores for different kinds of abilitiesVerbal & Nonverbal tasks
14 Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner believed there exists at least 8 different types of intelligences.LinguisticLogical-MathematicalSpatialMusicalBody-KinestheticIntrapersonalInterpersonalNaturalist
24 Assignment: Create an intelligence test. Requirements:Include a minimum of 12 questionsCreate an answer key or scoring rubric on a separate sheet of paper.Bring 5 copies of your group’s test (typed) to class Friday.ConsiderationsWhat type of intelligence are you measuring?What are the characteristics of an intelligent person?Does your test accurately and fairly measure intelligence?
25 Robert Sternberg and his Triarchic Theory Most commonly accepted theory today.Three types of intelligenceAnalytical what is tested by IQ test, what we are asked to do in schoolCreative: adaptive reaction to novel situations, showing insight, and being able to see more than one way to solve a problem.Practical: “street smarts” ability to read people, knowing how to put together a bake sale
26 Goleman and his EQ Emotional Intelligence Interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences.Maybe EQ is a better predictor for future success than IQ.
27 CreativityCreativity: ability to generate ideas and solutions that are original, novel, and useful. Not usually measured by intelligence tests.Threshold Theory: a certain level of intelligence is necessary but not sufficient for creative work.
28 Heredity/Environment and Intelligence Nature/Nurture controversy: what extent is intelligence hereditary and what is learned.Nature:Down’s SyndromeNurture:Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (environmental)
29 Heredity/Environment and Intelligence Studies of Twins:Identical twins have similar scores on intelligence tests. Intelligence scores of adoptees are more like those of their biological parents than their adopted parents. Brain scans of twins reveal similar brain volume and anatomy.
30 Heredity/Environment and Intelligence Environmental Influences on Intelligence::Siblings raised together are more similar in IQ than siblings raised apart.Children from deprived homes then moved into middle/upper class foster homes tend to increase iq. School attendance results in increased IQ scores. In fact, scores tend to steadily increase. James Flynn observed that we start doing better on tests called the FLYNN EFFECT
31 Heredity/Environment and Intelligence Heritability:Results from genetic causes. Hereditability for intelligence estimates range 50 to 75%Reaction Range Model: genetic makeup determines the upper limit for an individual’s IQ.
32 Brain Size and Intelligence Is there a link? Small +.15 correlation between head size and intelligence scores (relative to body size).Using an MRI we found +.44 correlation with brain size and IQ score.