2 Learning Goals What is ability? What are the various types of cognitive ability?What are the various types of emotional ability?What are the various types of physical ability?How does cognitive ability affect job performance and organizational commitment?What steps can organizations take to hire people with high levels of cognitive ability?
3 Ability Ability Ability is relatively stable. Abilities are a function of both genes and the environment.
4 Cognitive Ability Cognitive abilities Verbal abilityOral comprehensionWritten comprehensionOral expressionWritten expressionGenerally speaking, verbal abilities are most important in jobs in which effectiveness depends on understanding and communicating ideas and information to others.
8 Cognitive Ability, Cont’d Perceptual abilitiesSpeed and flexibility of closurePerceptual speed
9 Types and Facets of Cognitive Ability Table 10-1
10 Cognitive Ability, Cont’d People who are high on verbal abilities also tend to be high on reasoning, quantitative, spatial, and perceptual abilities.The most popular explanation for the similarity in the levels of different cognitive abilities within people is that there is a general mental ability —sometimes called g or the g factor —that underlies or causes all of the more specific cognitive abilities discussed so far.
12 Emotional Ability Emotional intelligence Self-awarenessOther awarenessEmotion regulationUse of emotionsIt is a more important determinant of job performance for people with lower levels of cognitive intelligence.It is the foundation for cultural intelligence.
13 Sample Items from the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Figure 10-2
18 Physical Abilities, Cont’d Psychomotor abilitiesFine manipulative abilitiesControl movement abilitiesResponse orientationResponse time
19 Physical Abilities, Cont’d Sensory abilitiesNear and far visionVisual color discrimination and depth perceptionHearing sensitivityAuditory attentionSpeech recognition
20 What Does It Mean for an Employee to Be “Able?” Figure 10-3
21 Discussion QuestionsWhat combination of abilities is appropriate for the job of your dreams? Do you possess those abilities?If you fall short on any of these abilities, what could you do to improve?
22 How Important Is Ability Cognitive ability is a strong predictor of job performance — in particular, the task performance aspect.People who have higher general cognitive ability tend to be better at learning and decision making.Cognitive ability tends to be more strongly correlated with task performance than citizenship behavior or counterproductive behavior.Research has not supported a significant linkage between cognitive ability and organizational commitment.
23 Effects of General Cognitive Ability on Performance and Commitment Figure 10-4
24 Application: The Wonderlic Given the strong relationship between general cognitive ability and job performance, many organizations are using ability tests to hire new employees.Wonderlic Personnel Test is a 12-minute test of general cognitive ability that consists of 50 questions.Offers recommendations for minimum passing scores for different job families.
25 Suggested Minimum Wonderlic Scores for Various Jobs AVERAGE SCORESMechanical Engineer30Attorney29Executive28Nurse26Firefighter21Unskilled Laborer17Maid-Matron16Adapted from Table 10-3
26 Sample Wonderlic Questions Adapted from Figure 10-5
27 TakeawaysAbility refers to the relatively stable capabilities of people to perform a particular range of different but related activities. Differences in ability are a function of both genes and the environment.Cognitive abilities include verbal ability, quantitative ability, reasoning ability, spatial ability, and perceptual ability. General mental ability, or g, underlies all of these more specific cognitive abilities.Emotional intelligence includes four specific kinds of emotional skills: self-awareness, other awareness, emotion regulation, and use of emotions.
28 Takeaways, Cont’dPhysical abilities include strength, stamina, flexibility and coordination, psychomotor abilities, and sensory abilities.General cognitive ability has a strong positive relationship with job performance, due primarily to its effects on task performance. In contrast, general cognitive ability is not related to organizational commitment.Many organizations use cognitive ability tests to hire applicants with high levels of general mental ability. One of the most commonly used tests is the Wonderlic Personnel Test.