2 Negritude MovementA movement for African independence that started before World War II.French–speaking Africans and West Indians celebrated their heritage of traditional African culture and values.
3 Ghana [former British colony] 1957 Revolutionary Leader: Kwame NkumahNkrumah’s Tactics:Organized boycotts and strikesReforms:Expensive Health, education, & welfare programsDreamed of “United States of Africa”Problems he faced:Overthrown by a coup in 1966Political & Economic Instability since then
5 Current President of Ghana Professor John Atta Mills
6 Kenya [Former British Colony] 1963 Tactics used by the Mau-Mau:Frighten whites & forced them out of the northern highlandsKenyatta’s Reforms:Tried to unite ethnic & language groupsDevelop businessesResulting Problems:Civil Unrest under next leader, Daniel arap Moi
7 MZEE JOMO KENYATTA 1ST PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA
8 Current President of Kenya Mwai Kibaki The International Crimes Court is currently investigating the widespread civil unrest in Kenya and allegations of corruption and violations of human rights.Current warnings against travel to Kenya have been issued through the U.S. State Department.
9 Zaire, 1960 (Democratic Republic of Congo) Former colony of BelgiumGained independence by: Granted suddenly by BelgiumMobutu’s rule was: Brutal & Corrupt.Resulting problems:Depleted resourcesExtreme PovertySocial Unrest; He was overthrown by Laurent Kabila in Kabila was assassinated in His son, Joseph Kabila, took power.
12 Algeria [Former colony of France] 1962 Gained independence by:FLN (Algerian Nat’l Liberation Front) fought against France for their independence.Ben Bella’s ProgramAttempted to form a socialist state but was overthrown by a coup in 1965Problems:Unsuccessful attempts to industrializeHigh UnemploymentRise of Fundamentalist IslamistsContinuing civil unrest
14 Current President of Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika “Elected” in 2004 after all other candidates dropped out.
15 Angola [Former colony of Portugal] 1975 Gained independence by: Fought against PortugalCauses of their civil war:Communist rebel group MPLA declared itself the rightful ruler of independent Angola. They were supported by Cuba & USSRUNITA rebel group fought against MPLA with support from the USAContinuing problems:Civil war continued until 2002.
16 José Eduardo dos Santos President of Angola since l979.His son is Vice President.