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Dialysis Requirements

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Presentation on theme: "Dialysis Requirements"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dialysis Requirements 11.3.2
Demonstration of dialysis (see teacher guide in nelson thornes) Visking tubing demo – Red/orange sand (erythrocytes) yellow dye (urine) Glass beaker

2 3 Dialysis Objectives p.250 Students should learn:
that kidney failure can be treated by dialysis that dialysis removes the urea from the blood that dialysis restores the concentrations of dissolved substances in the blood to normal levels.

3 Specification People who suffer from kidney failure may be treated either by using a kidney dialysis machine or by having a healthy kidney transplanted. [B3.3.1 d)] Treatment by dialysis restores the concentrations of dissolved substances in the blood to normal levels and has to be carried out at regular intervals. [B3.3.1 e)] In a dialysis machine a person’s blood flows between partially permeable membranes. The dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of useful substances as the blood. This ensures that glucose and useful mineral ions are not lost. Urea passes out from the blood into the dialysis fluid. [B3.3.1 f)]

4 3 Dialysis p.250

5 Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys
What is dialysis? Dialysis involves diverting the blood through an 'artificial kidney' machine that cleans it and returns it to the body. What happens during kidney dialysis? 1. A tube is connected to a vein in the patient’s arm. 2. The patient’s blood flows along the tube, into the machine. 3. Inside the machine, the blood is pumped through semi-permeable tubes surrounded by dialysis fluid. Dialysis fluid contains sodium, magnesium, calcium chloride and potassium chloride and sodium acetate, in the same concentrations as the blood plasma of a healthy person. Photo credit: © Shutterstock 2009, bork Teacher notes Kidney dialysis is used to reduce the concentration of urea, sodium and potassium in a patient’s blood. High concentrations of these substances can cause organ damage.

6 Dialysis What can cause kidneys to fail? (3)
Which 2 ways can kidney failure be treated? Why do people who are not treated die? What is a dialysis machine? What does the dialysis fluid contain? Why does dialysis have to be repeated for 8 hours several times a week?

7 Dialysis What can cause kidneys to fail? (3)
Which 2 ways can kidney failure be treated? Why do people who are not treated die? What does a dialysis machine do? What does the dialysis fluid contain? Why does dialysis have to be repeated for 8 hours several times a week? Infection, accident/damage, inherited Dialysis, transplant Urea poisons them Cleans the blood like a kidney would Water, and correct concentrations of useful substances (so they do not diffuse out of the blood) Takes a long time to clean the blood

8 Dialysis demonstration
What do each of the parts represent? (4) What happens to the yellow dye? (3) What happens to the red blood cells and why? (2) 1 Water 2 dialysis tubing 3 Sand 4 Yellow dye

9 Dialysis demonstration
What do each of the parts represent? (4) What happens to the yellow dye? (3) What happens to the red blood cells and why? (2) Water=dialysis fluid, dialysis tubing= partially permeable membrane, sand = red blood cells, yellow dye = urea Moves by diffusion from high to low concentration out of the tubing They stay in the tubing as they are too large to fit through the ppmembrane

10 Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys
Dialysis machine

11 At the beginning of dialysis
At the end of dialysis What happens to urea What happens to dissolved mineral ions (salts) What happens to glucose

12 At the beginning of dialysis
At the end of dialysis Patient’s blood What happens to urea What happens to dissolved mineral ions (salts) What happens to glucose Glucose is in the dialysing fluid so it diffuses equally in and out of the blood

13 Extension How can the doctors be sure that not too much salt (ions) moves out of the blood?

14 Pros and cons of dialysis
Can eat what you want in the first 2 hours of dialysis (then dialysis can remove it!) Cleans your blood Little risk of adverse reaction. strict diet need to be followed between dialysis sessions Needles – uncomfortable risk of infection Very time consuming Need to stay immobile whilst on machine for hours at a time Expensive

15 Activity Q 1-3 on P251 Copy/ complete a diagram showing how dialysis works.

16 Outcomes Most students should be able to:
describe how dialysis is used to treat kidney failure explain why dialysis needs to be carried out at regular intervals describe what happens during kidney dialysis list some of the advantages and disadvantages of kidney dialysis. Some students should also be able to: give a detailed explanation of kidney dialysis in terms of diffusion and concentration gradients evaluate the pros and cons of dialysis treatment.


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