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T YPE 2 DIABETES By: Candice Carlson November 21, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "T YPE 2 DIABETES By: Candice Carlson November 21, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 T YPE 2 DIABETES By: Candice Carlson November 21, 2011

2 W HY TALK ABOUT DIABETES ? More common. Nutrition related. High interest. Family.

3 O VERVIEW What is Type 2 Diabetes? History Causes Facts about Type 2 Diabetes. Signs/symptoms Process Diagnostic criteria Management Nutrition Conclusion

4 W HAT IS T YPE 2 D IABETES ? Diabetes is the impairment of the body to make food into energy. More frequent in older adults. 90 to 95 % of cases are type 2, most common form. After eating, the body breaks food into glucose (sugar). Glucose is a fuel source for cells. In diabetes, the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or cells don’t respond to insulin correctly. Insulin is a hormone that adjusts glucose levels in blood. Result in high blood glucose levels.

5 H ISTORY Diabetes has been recognized for thousands of years. Noted as “Sugar Urine Disease.” Medhumeha was discovered by an Indian physician and said that exercise could cure it. Manuscript noted “passing of too much urine.” The description and name of diabetes was from a Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia. Hippocrates never mentioned it. Thought it may have been incurable, “death sentence.” Aretaeus tried to treat diabetes. Noted that life would be short, painful, and disgusting with diabetes. No treatment of type 2 diabetes historically.

6 H ISTORY The different types of diabetes were discovered in the twentieth century. 1921 – Insulin was discovered. 1935 – Roger Hinsworth discovered the types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is known as the non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus. Adult-onset diabetes Maturity-onset diabetes Most often in middle aged adults but a rising amount of children are being diagnosed.

7 F ACTS In the United States, Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death. 25.8 million people are affected. 8.3 % of the U.S. Population Diagnosed – 18.8 million. Undiagnosed – 7.0 million.

8 U NITED S TATES D IABETES F ACTS 26.9 % of older adults (65 years and older) had diabetes in 2010. 215,000 people 20 years and younger had diabetes in 2010. Type 1 and Type 2 in 2010. In 2005-2008, 35% of adults aged 20 and older had pre-diabetes. 50% of older adults had pre-diabetes. In total 79 million American adults!! Causes stroke and heart disease. Primary cause of kidney failure and blindness (new cases).

9 Group Number or percentage who have diabetes Ages 20 years or older 25.6 million, or 11.3 percent, of all people in this age group Ages 65 years or older 10.9 million, or 26.9 percent, of all people in this age group Men 13.0 million, or 11.8 percent, of all men ages 20 years or older Women 12.6 million, or 10.8 percent, of all women ages 20 years or older Non-Hispanic whites 15.7 million, or 10.2 percent, of all non- Hispanic whites ages 20 years or older Non-Hispanic blacks 4.9 million, or 18.7 percent, of all non- Hispanic blacks ages 20 years or older 2010 U NITED S TATES

10 E TIOLOGY Type 2 diabetics do secrete insulin, unlike type 1 diabetics. Small amounts. Main Problem in Type 2 Diabetes Insulin receptors are insensitive to the hormone. Insulin Resistance The little amount of insulin secreted does not bind to the cell receptors as it should. Many people may have diabetes for years before they become diagnosed (asymptomatic).



13 R ISKS Highest Risk: Alaska Native, Pacific Islander, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, African American. Inactive Overweight Family history – Parent, brother, sister with diabetes. Age – 40 years or older.

14 R ISKS History of cardiovascular disease. Had gestational diabetes or had a child weighing more than 9 pounds. HDL cholesterol is less than 35 mg/dL Triglyceride level is greater than 250 mg/dL. High blood pressure – greater than 140/90 mm Hg. Children are at a greater risk if their mother has type 2 diabetes.

15 S YMPTOMS Many people do not know they have diabetes. May be no symptoms. Very mild. Symptoms may include: Fatigue Blurred vision Weight loss Polydipsia Polyphagia Polyuria Sores don’t heal.


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