Presentation on theme: "The Balance Sheet Statement"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Balance Sheet Statement Learning ObjectivesHow balance sheet accounts are measured, classified and presented.How balance sheet information is used.Balance sheet terminology and format outside the U.S.How footnotes aid to the understanding of the firm’s accounting policies, contingent liabilities, subsequent events, and related-party transactions4-1
2 The Accounting Equation Assets = Liabilities + EquityShareholders’ Equity:What’s left of the company’s assetsafter paying off liabilities.It also referred to as net assets.
4 Elements of the balance sheet How the money is investedWhere the money came fromASSETSLIABILITIESEQUITY=+Probable future economic benefitsObtained from past transactions or eventsProbable future sacrifices of economic benefitsArising from present obligationsTo transfer assets or provide services in the futureAs a result of past transactions or eventsThe residual interest in net assets.
5 Balance sheet Classification and Account Measurement - Current assets Amortized cost or current market valueNet realizable valueLower of cost or current market value4-5
6 Assets – classification and measurement Resources with future economic benefit to a business entity as a result of a past transaction.Current Assets: cash and other assets that are reasonably expected to be realized in cash or sold, or consumed during a normal operating cycle or one year, whichever is longerExamples: Cash and cash equivalents, short- term investments (reported at the fair value), receivables (estimated amount collectible), inventory (LCM), prepaid expenses, etc.
7 Balance Sheet Classification and Account Measurement -PPE, Investments and Intangibles Historical cost minus accumulated depreciation except that fair market value is used when “impaired”4-7
8 Assets (contd.) Long-term Investments: Comprise of the following 4/19/2017Assets (contd.)Long-term Investments: Comprise of the followingSecurities (i.e., bonds, stock, long-term notes)Fixed assets (i.e., land, building)Special funds (i.e., pension fund, bond sinking fund)Nonconsolidated subsidiaries or affiliated companies
9 Assets (contd.)Property, Plant, Equipment (i.e., building, Land, Machinery and equipment, capital leases): assets used in firms’ operations and meet the following criteria:1. Economic life > 1 year;2. Acquired for use in operation;3. Not for resale to customers;4. $ is material. (materiality)Depreciation will be applied except for land.
10 Assets (contd.)Intangible Assets: assets with no physical substance but have value based on rights or privileges that belong to the owner (i.e., goodwill, patents, franchises, trademarks,…).Amortization for limited life intangibles (i.e., patents, franchises) and impairment test for indefinite-life intangibles (i.e., goodwill).
11 Balance Sheet Classification and Measurement - Liabilities Amount due at maturityHistorical costDiscounted present value4-11
12 LiabilitiesLegal obligations required future payments of assets or services as a result of a business entity’s past transactions or events.A. Current LiabilitiesB. Long-term LiabilitiesC. Other Liabilities
13 A. Current LiabilitiesObligations must be fulfilled in one year or one operating cycle, whichever is longer. (will require the use of current assets or the creation of current liability) (i.e., A/P, N/P, accrual payable, unearned revenue, income tax payable, current portion of L-T debt)
14 Contingent Liabilities Obligations may arise because of the occurrence or not occurrence of future event(s). (i.e., warranty obligations)
15 B. Long-Term Liabilities Obligations are not due in next year or next operating cycle, whichever is longer. (i.e., bonds payable, pension liability)
16 C. Other LiabilitiesLong-term advances from customers, deferred income taxes.
17 Balance Sheet Classification and Account Measurement -Stockholders’ equity Historical par valueHistorical costCombination of different measurement bases4-17
18 Stockholders’ EquityResidual claims (assets-liabilities) to the business entity from stockholders including:a. contributed capitalb. (+ or -)Accumulated Other Comprehensive Incomec. retained earnings (or - deficit)d. (-)treasury stock
19 a. Contributed Capital Par value of common stock Par value of prefer stockPaid-in capital in excess of par value of common stock or preferred stock
20 b. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income Increase of assets without outflows of assets, increase of liabilities, increase of income or issuance of common stock (i.e.,(+) increase in market value of securities-available-for-sale (+ or -), gains or losses of foreign currency adjustments, etc.)
21 c. Retained Earnings Net income not distributed to stockholders appropriatedunappropriated
22 Balance sheet information 1. Rates of returnROA and ROCEASSETS2. Capital structureDebt vs. EquityHelps3. LiquidityCash conversionLIABILITIES+EQUITYassess4. SolvencyAbility to pay debt5. FlexibilityOperating and financialBalance Sheet
23 1. Rate of Return RatiosROA (return on assets) and ROCE (return on common equity) ratios:Evaluate operating efficiency and profitability.ROA =Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) / Average assetsROCE =(Net income – Preferred dividends) / Average common shareholders’ equity
24 2. Capital StructureThe balance sheet provides critical information for understanding an entity’s capital structure.Capital structure refers to how much of an entity’s assets are financed from debt versus equity sources.
25 3. Liquidity RatiosLiquidity measures how readily assets can be converted to cash relative to how soon liabilities will have to be paid in cash.Current ratio: Indicate the level of current resources available to pay current debts.Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current LiabilitiesQuestion:Does higher ratio always indicate better financial status?
26 4. SolvencySolvency defines the ability of a company to generate sufficient cash flows to maintain its productive capacity and still able to pay off the long-term debt.Debt ratios provide information about the amount of long-term debt in a company’s financial structure.Long-term debt to assets =Long term debt/Total assets
27 Solvency (contd.)A company that can not make timely payments in the amount required becomes insolvent and may be compelled to reorganize or liquidate.
28 5. FlexibilityFlexibility refers to the ability to adapt or revise to a new strategy for different circumstances.The ability to adjust to unexpected downturn in the economic environment in which it operates or to take advantage of profitable investment opportunities when they arise.
29 Analytical insights: Understanding the business Which company is:DeereE-TradePotomac Electric PowerWal-Mart4-29
30 Balance sheet presentation: International differences U.S. Format:U.K. Format:Current AssetsFixed Assets++Long-lived AssetsCurrent Assets-=Current Liabilities-Current LiabilitiesNon-current Liabilities+Non-current Liabilities=+Stockholders’ EquityCapital Employed4-30
31 Financial statement footnotes Footnotes are an integral part of companies’ financial reports.These “notes” help users better understand and interpret the numbers presented in the body of the financial statements.Three important notes:Summary of significant accounting policies.Subsequent event disclosures.Related party transactions4-31
32 Limitations of the Balance Sheet 1. Historical costs reporting for most of assets and liabilities.2. Estimations involved in the value of some assets and liabilities (i.e., the net realizable value of accounts receivable and the cost of warranty).3. the omission of some valuable items such as goodwill of the company.4. Off-balance sheet liabilities.
33 SummaryThe balance sheet shows the assets owned by a company at a given point in time, and how those assets are financed (debt vs. equity).Be alert for differences in balance sheet measurement bases, account titles, and statement format.Financial statement footnotes provide important information..4-33