Presentation on theme: "Enzymes in Industry Natural enzymes are used in many industrial processes (such as food processing, textiles) to: Speed up chemical reactions in the process."— Presentation transcript:
Enzymes in Industry Natural enzymes are used in many industrial processes (such as food processing, textiles) to: Speed up chemical reactions in the process. Increase efficiency --reducing water usage and energy consumption. Improve the product -- Remove distasteful flavours and colours.
Starch Processing Processing starch from corn, wheat, and grains to glucose syrup by hydrolysis. Enzymes from bacteria used to specifically break down amylose and amylopectin (starch). Glucose, dextrose and fructose syrups are used as sweeteners in foods (candies, jams, cookies, soft drinks) and pharmaceuticals (cough syrup, vitamins).
Dairy Industry Proteases are used to coagulate milk for the production of cheese. The main enzyme used is chymosin. Taken from calf cells and replicated in bacteria and yeast. Chymosin is added to milk to hydrolyze casein (a milk protein), resulting in coagulation and 'curding'. The curd is used to produce different cheeses.
Cheese Making Lactase is used to break down lactose. Leftover lactose in the whey may crystallize and give some cheeses and ice cream an unwanted grainy texture, adding lactase removes the leftover lactose and unwanted texture. Lipases are used to break down fats into free fatty acids which produces a variety of cheeses with stronger flavours.
Confectionary How do they make those chocolates with the gooey centres? Some are made by moulds, but others use enzymes. The chocolate is poured over a solid mixture which contains sucrose and an enzyme, The chocolate sets, and then the enzyme breaks down the sucrose into glucose and fructose. These smaller sugar molecules are much more soluble than sucrose and dissolve in the small amount of water in the original mixture = yummy goo.
Other uses in the Food Industry: Increase the maturation of beer; removal of carbohydrates to create light beers Degradation of pectin by pectinase to clarify wine and fruit juice, increase yield. Modify flour to improve baking properties, extend shelf-life, breadmaking... baby food – to start off digestion of fats and proteins that are hard on baby’s immature digestive system. Etc.
Enzymes in the Cleaning Industry Allow materials to be washed at low temperatures and with less mechanical agitation (more efficient). More effective than non-biological detergents and soaps at removing biological stains such as blood, grass, milk and perspiration. Proteases and amylases are added to detergents to boost stain-removing power.
Enzymes and Textiles Cellulases are used to brighten colours and soften cotton. Leather: enzymes are used for unhairing (ick!), batting and defatting hides and skins to produce leather.
Enzymes as Pharmaceuticals Enzymes can be used as drugs to target specific diseases. 1 st genetically engineered protein as drug: insulin (a protein hormone) for diabetes 2 nd : Activase (alteplase) for breaking up clots, used in heart attacks Enzymes are also used to enhance the production of pharmaceuticals, such as penicillin.
Treatment of Cancer Enzymes are used for inhibiting cancer cell growth, vascularization (blood supply) and metastasis (spread). Enzymes are used to deliver and turn on cancer drugs only when in the presence of cancer cells. Enzymes are used for treating side effects of cancer, such as hyperuricemia, a build up of uric acid (toxic to human body).
Ex. Childhood lymphoblastic leukemia Normal cells are able to synthesize the amino acid asparagine, the cancer cells are not. The enzyme pegaaspargase degrades asparagine, causing cancer cells to die in its presence. The enzyme is used along with standard chemotherapy to help combat the cancer cells.
Enzyme Therapy Enzyme therapy is the use of enzyme supplements to help with digestion, to boost the immune system and to maintain overall homeostasis. Used by people suffering from cystic fibrosis, diabetes, celiac disease, lactose intolerance, cancer... Enzyme supplements are extracted from plants and organs of animals (cows and pigs). Typically given in tablet or capsule form, some by injection. Often taken immediately before meals.
Ex. Lactose Intolerance Products: LactAid / Dairy Ease / Lactase Tablets of lactase hydrolyze lactose to glucose and galactose, typically taken before eating dairy products. Some specialized dairy products made with lactase added in them already -- slight increase in sweetness, due to sweeter monosaccharides.
Questions: 1.Why are enzymes used in industry? 2.Why are there so many different varieties of cheese when the production process is basically the same for all cheeses? 3.a. What types of food production processes use enzymes to improve their products/yields? b. How do they do so? 4.How do enzymes benefit the cleaning industry? How might they be considered more beneficial to your health? 5.How and why are enzymes used as pharmaceutical supplements to treat digestive system disorders such as lactose intolerance? 6.What are the different ways enzymes are used in cancer treatment?