Presentation on theme: "Non-Military Events of Civil War. Political Creation of black military units Segregated units with white officers in the army. The navy had integrated."— Presentation transcript:
Political Creation of black military units Segregated units with white officers in the army. The navy had integrated units
Economic Homestead Act (1862)—encouraged settlement of the West; gave 160 acres of land to anyone who would agree to farm it for 5 years. Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)—gave each state thousands of acres of land to sell; at least one public university had to be funded from the money made; the foundation of the public university system.
Cultural Draft Opposition—both sides had a military draft; Confederacy started it first; in the North there was great opposition to the draft and several horrible riots over it; poor people resented the draft because you had to serve in the army or pay $300 for a substitute, which poor people could not afford. Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863)—issued by President Lincoln, freed only slaves in the Confederate States, which actually meant it freed no slaves; after this was issued, many black soldiers joined the Union Army.
Legal Lincoln suspended the right to a writ of habeas corpus (guarantee that a person could not be imprisoned without appearing in court) and declared martial (military) law in Maryland. He then had Confederate supporters in Maryland jailed to keep Maryland in the Union. If Maryland had joined the Confederacy, Washington, D.C. would have been surrounded by Confederate Territory.
First Shots Fired: Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina (April 1861) First Major Battle: First Battle of Bull Run, south of Washington, D.C. in Virginia (July 1861) Bloodiest Battle: Battle of Shiloh, Tennessee (April 1862) Bloodiest One Day Battle: Battle of Antietim, Maryland (September 1862)
Civil War (1861-1865) Vicksburg, Mississippi (May-July 1863)—the last Southern stronghold on the Mississippi River; General Ulysses S. Grant led a successful Union siege to give the Union control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy. Turning Point: Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (July 1-3 1863) Union Victory; Lincoln will give his famous Gettysburg Address at the dedication of a cemetery here in November 1863.
Civil War (1861-1865) Sherman’s March to the Sea (May-December 1864)—Union general William T. Sherman led 60,000 Union troops from Chattanooga, Tennessee, through Atlanta, Georgia, to Savannah, Georgia, then northward into South Carolina and North Carolina; his troops destroyed everything in a 60-mile wide path; this created much bitterness in the South. Surrender—General Robert E. Lee of the Confederacy surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, Virginia on April 9, 1865. President Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth while attending a play at Ford’s Theater. Vice-President Andrew Johnson of Tennessee becomes President.
Costs of War North – 360,000 killed – Union debt grew from $63 million to $1.3 billion; resulted in inflation. – Industrial production for the war reached record levels. – Return of soldiers to work led to a brief recession—economic downturn with higher unemployment – Union Saved South – 258,000 killed – Slavery ended – South was destroyed; railroads, factories, banks, farms – 2/3’s of Southern wealth was destroyed, much when slaves were freed – For both regions, over ½ the soldiers did not die of wounds, but of disease.