Presentation on theme: "1. What or who influences people to start drinking alcohol? List at least 3 examples. 2. According to most teens, what do you think is the most important."— Presentation transcript:
Alcohol is a factor in: 33% of suicides 50% of homicides 62% of assaults 68% of manslaughter cases 50% of head injuries 41% of traffic fatalities More than half of all drowning incidents Responsible for ¼ of all emergency room admissions 40% of violent crimes (3 million annually) are alcohol related. 2/3 of victims of domestic violence report alcohol as a factor in the crime. ½ of all homicide victims have alcohol in their blood stream.
Alcohol and the Law – if you under 21, it is illegal Alcohol and Extracurricular Activities – the school has a zero tolerance policy. Students will become ineligible to play sports or participate in other activities
Ethanol – type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages. Produced through the fermentation of fruits, vegetables, and grains. Fermentation – chemical reaction of yeast on sugars Alcohol is a depressant. Depressant– drug that slows the central nervous system
Intoxication – is a state in which the body is poisoned by alcohol or other drugs and a person’s physical and mental control are significantly reduced 1. Body Size and Gender – smaller people feel the effects faster. In general moves into the blood stream faster in females 2. Food – food slows the passage of alcohol into the blood stream 3. Amount and rate of intake – when a person drinks more alcohol than the liver can break down then intoxication occurs. When levels become to high then alcohol poisoning occurs.
Brain Cardiovascular Decrease in control of the body. Movement, speech, and vision affected. Thought processes are disorganized, and memory and concentration are dulled Judgment is altered and coordination impaired Low intake- Increases heart rate and blood pressure High intake- Decreases heart rate and BP, putting heart at risk or irregular heart beats Blood vessels dilate, making body lose heat and body temp. decrease
Digestive System Respiratory Stomach- stomach acid production increases and results in nausea and/or vomiting Liver- toxic chemicals are released which may cause scarring Kidneys- increased output which increases likelihood of dehydration Lungs- Carbon dioxide formed by liver is released Breathing- alcohol depresses the nerves that control breathing. If alcohol consumption is excessive, breathing will slow, become irregular and even stop.
Addiction – Inability to stop drinking Loss of Brain Functions – Loss of verbal skills, visual and spatial skills, and memory Brain Damage – possible reduction in brain size. Loss of brain cells, however, brain can recover if the person stops drinking over time.
Heart – Damage to heart muscle Enlarged Heart – From increased work load High Blood Pressure – Damages heart and can cause heart attack and/or stroke
Fatty Liver – Fats build up in the liver and cannot be broken down; excess fats block flow of blood to liver cells, leading to cell death Alcoholic Hepatitis – Inflammation or infection of the liver Cirrhosis – liver tissue is replaced by useless scar tissue; disease can lead to liver failure and death unless liver transplant is performed.
Irritation – Digestive lining is damaged; can lead to stomach ulcers and cancer of the stomach and esophagus
Lining of the Pancreas – Swells to block the passage from the pancreas to the small intestines. › Blocks chemicals the small intestines need for digestion. › Chemicals begin to destroy the pancreas, causing pain and vomiting. May even cause death.
Multiplier Effect – alcohol combined with medication can change or enhance the effect. What could this cause? › May slow down the drugs absorption increasing the amount of time the drug is in the body which would increase the risk of harmful side effects. › May cause drugs to be broken down faster than normal. › Alcohol can change some medications into dangerous chemicals which may damage the liver (ie. Acetaminophine and alcohol) › Alcohol can increase the effect of some drugs (ie. Antihistamines)
Binge Drinking – drinking five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting Studies show that binge drinking is a serious problem among young people. Why do you think so?
Alcohol Poisoning – a severe or potentially fatal reaction to an alcoholic overdose. › Effects of Alcohol Poisoning Mental confusion, coma, stupor, vomiting, seizures Slow respiration – 10 seconds between breaths, fewer than 8 per minute Irregular heart beat Hypothermia, or low body temp – pale skin Severe dehydration from vomiting
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) – May cause birth defects which may include: › small head and deformities of the face, hands or feet. › Heart, liver, and kidney defects as well as hearing and vision problems are common. › May also have learning disabilities as well as attention deficits.
Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) – the amount of alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percentage. Must be under.08 Drinking alcohol of any sort: › Slows reflexes › Reduces ability to judge distances › Increases risk taking behaviors › Reduces ability to concentrate
Alcoholism – disease in which a person has a physical or psychological dependence on drinks that contain alcohol. Alcoholic – Person who is dependant upon alcohol. May display violence or aggression. May become withdrawn or quiet. It effects every race, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic group. What is the difference between an alcoholic and a problem drinker?
CRAVING – Strong need to drink LOSS of CONTROL – Inability to limit the number of drinks consumed PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE – When sober they experience withdrawal symptoms such as sweating, nausea, shakes, and anxiety TOLERANCE – Needs to increase amount consumed to feel the effects HEALTH, FAMILY, LEGAL PROBLEMS – DUI’s, poor relationships, etc..
Stage 1 – Abuse: Social Drinking turns to dependence turns to used for stress management turns to regular intoxication turns to making excuses for drinking turns to increase in consumption to get desired effect. Stage 2 – Dependence: Cannot stop drinking and becomes the person’s central focus. May blame others for problem.
Stage 3 – Addiction: Drinking is most important thing in a person’s life. Liver damage is likely. Withdrawal symptoms may occur.
Step 1 – Admission: Person admits to having a problem. Step 2 – Detoxification: Person goes through a process in which the body adjusts to functioning without alcohol. Step 3 – Counseling: Person receives counseling to learn to live without alcohol. Step 4 – Recovery: Person is in the process of learning to live an alcohol-free life.