Presentation on theme: "Food Additives COMPLIED BY : Mrs. Vandana Mahajani."— Presentation transcript:
Food Additives COMPLIED BY : Mrs. Vandana Mahajani
1. Antioxidants An antioxidants a substance added to fats and fat containing substances to retard oxidation and thereby prolong their wholesomeness, palatability and sometimes keeping time. They should not contribute to objectionable odour, flavour or colour to the fat Examples of antioxidants are: Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) Propyl Gallate (PG) Butylated Hydrooxytoluene ( BHT) Tertiary butyl hydroquonine (TBHQ) Naturally occurring substances are Tocopherols, they are expensive and thus not used as additives
2.Colouring agents These include colour stabilizers, colour fixatives, colour retention agents,etc Originally many colour additives were natural pigments or dyes. Spinach juice, grass, marigold flower, seed coat of lipstick pod plant,saffron, turmeric and caramel have been used as natural colouring agents Synthetic colour include coal tar dyes, iron oxide (for redness) titanium dioxide (for whiteness)
3. Curing agents These are used to preserve (cure) meats, give them desirable colour and flavour, discourage growth of microorganisms and prevent toxin formation Sodium nitrite has been used for centuries for this purpose. Other
4. Emulsions Emulsifiers are a group of substances used to obtain a stable mixture of liquids that otherwise would not mix or would separate quickly. They also stabilize gas-in –solid and gas –in –liquid mixtures They are widely used in dairy and confectionary products. They are added to salad dressings, margarine and shortenings. Lecithin found in milk and soyabean is the most commonly used emulsifiers. The synthetic ones are glycol monostearate, sorbitan monostearate and polysorbates.
5. Flavour and flavour enhancers Flavour enhancers are not flavour in themselves but they amplify the flavour of other substances. There are about 2,100 flavour and are the largest class of food additives. Natural flavouring substances are herbs,spices, roots, essences and essential oils. The agents responsible for flavour are esters, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and ethers.. Monosodium glutamate or MSG is the most commonly used flavour enhancer and is used in Japanese and Chinese foods.
6. Flour improvers. These are bleaching and maturing agents used to bleach and mature the flour. Agent used for flour bleaching is benzoyle peroxide. Materials used for both leaching and improving are chlorine gas, chlorine dioxide, nitrocyle chloride nitrogen di and tetra oxides. Oxidizing agents used only for dough improvement are potassium bromate, potassium iodate, calcium iodate, and calcium peroxide
7. Leavening agents Leavening agents produce light and fluffy baked products Originally yeast was used for this purpose. Today baking powder is used for this purpose.
8. Nutrient supplements Nutrient supplements replace the values lost in processing and storage, or ensure higher nutritional value than what nature may have provided Thiamine, nicotinic acid, iron and calcium are added to the flour Vitamin A and D is added to fats. Cereals, baby foods and fruit juices are fortified with vitamins.
9. Nonnutritive sweeteners Sucrose is an ideal sweetener in many ways but for its high calorie content The first synthetic sweetening agent used was saccharin, but it leaves a bitter after taste. Today cyclamates are used a sweetening agents in most soft drinks Nonnutritive sweetening agents are also available now and use din tobacco products, confectionaries and beverages.
10. ph control agents These include acids alkalis and buffers. They not only control the acid and the alkali level but also food properties like flavor, texture, cooking qualities etc.
11. Preservatives Preservatives are used to inhibit, retard or arrest the growth of microorganisms. Sodium chloride, sugar, sulphur dioxide, nitrate and nitrite, sorbic acid, acetic acid are widely used as preservatives.
12. Stabilizers and thickeners These substances inhibit crystallization, stabilize emulsions and foams, reduce the thickness of icings on backed products and enhance flavours. Substances used as stabilizers are gum, agar, starch and its derivatives. Gravies, pie fillings, cake toppings, chocolate milk drinks, jellies, puddings and salad dressings are among the many food that contain stabilizers and thickeners.