Presentation on theme: "How Biological Factors May Affect Memory"— Presentation transcript:
1 How Biological Factors May Affect Memory By Mr Daniel Hansson
2 Question for Discussion Identify factors that affect the body and may indirectly have a negative effect on memoryHow much sleep per night do you think a teenager need on average?Calculate how much you sleep on average per night on a regular weekWhat can you do to prevent memory impairment?What can you do to improve your memory?
3 Important ConceptsDementia: A gradual decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the body beyond what might be expected from normal agingAmnesia: Partial or total loss of memoryWhat is the main difference between dementia and amnesia?
4 Biological factors That May Impair Memory Alzheimers´ diseaseBrain damageSleep deprivation
5 Important Concepts: Alzheimers Disease Semantic memory: Memory for meaning, facts, words, knowledgeProcedural memory: Memory for skillsNeuroplasticity: The ability of the brain to change with learning. This ability is believed to decrease with age.
6 Alzheimers DiseaseA brain disease that starts with amnesia and gradually leads to dementiaThe brain activity is initially lowered in the back part of the brain (important for forming procedural memories), before it gradually moves forward
7 Alzheimers’ diseaseIn the early stages, the most commonly recognized symptom is partial loss of the semantic memoryIn the middle stages, the individual has problems with her short term memoryIn the later stages, the individuals’ long term memory is severely impaired
8 Possible Cause of Alzheimers Possible Cause of Alzheimers?: Attack of the Cholesterol Metabolism on Neuroplastic ProcessesCholesterol metabolism may lead to amyloidosis
9 AmyloidosisThe amyloid protein is accumulated in the brain and impairs communication between brain cells
10 Destabilization of Brain Cells by the Tau Protein Once a critical point of amyloidosis is reached, invidual brain cells are destabilized by the Tau protein
11 AcetylcholineAcetylcholine, a chemical substance (neurotransmitter) in the brain that encourages learning may inhibit the attack on the brain’s neuroplastic processes
12 Other possible factors on Alzheimers disease Positive emotionsLanguage abilitySleep deprivationGenetic factorsStrokes
13 Important Concepts: Brain Damage Localization of function in the brain: The idea that different parts in the brain carry out different functionsHippocampus: Is found in the limbic system of the brain. Is important for long term memory, short term memory and spatial orientationAnterograde amnesia: Inability to form new memoriesRetrograde amnesia: Inability to remember past events
14 Amnesia through Brain Damage: What Type(s) of Amnesia? H.M.: Had two thirds of his hippocampus removed due to surgery. He lost 11 years of his past memories prior to the surgery. Was unable to form new memories
15 Amnesia through Brain Damage: What Type of Amnesia? Clive Wearing: Contracted a virus (Herpes simplex encephalitis) that attacked his brain. He has lost most of his past memories and is unable to form new memories.
16 Sleep DeprivationThe average adult requires 8 hours of sleep per night. If she has less, she may suffer from sleep deprivationSleep deprivation may lead to impaired learning, memory loss and an increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (e.g. Kang et al. 2009; Holzman et al. 2009)It is possible to catch up on lost sleep (sleep debt), but if severe it can take months
17 Sleep and memory consolidation The younger you are, the more sleep you need. The average teenager requires 9.5 hours of sleep per nightProcedural skills (e.g. talking, driving, playing music) are improved by sleepStudies on rats demonstrate that memory consolidation is most important within five hours of learning
18 TaskFind and summarize one study that demonstrates the effect of biological factors on memory.Use the study summary worksheet and Summarize aim, research method, procedure, findings and conclusionExamples of biological factors include sleep, Alzheimers disease, insulin, hormonesBrain damage or the H.M. case study is not allowed