6 English vs. Metric Units Which is longer?A. 1 mile or 1 kilometerB. 1 yard or 1 meterC. 1 inch or 1 centimeter1.6 kilometers1 mile1 yard = meters1 inch = 2.54 centimetersLeft Image: Right Image:
7 m km mm cm Metric Units of Length The basic unit of length in the metric system in the meter and is represented by a lowercase m.Metric Units1 Kilometer (km) = 1000 meters1 Meter = 100 Centimeters (cm)1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters (mm)Which is larger?A. 1 meter or 105 centimetersB. 4 kilometers or 4400 metersC. 12 centimeters or 102 millimetersD millimeters or 1 meter
8 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters Measuring LengthHow many millimeters are in 1 centimeter?1 centimeter = 10 millimetersWhat is the length of the line in centimeters? _______cmWhat is the length of the line in millimeters? _______mmWhat is the length of the line to the nearest centimeter? ________cm
9 English vs. Metric Units 1 pound = gramsWhich is larger?1. 1 Pound or 100 Grams2. 1 Kilogram or 1 Pound3. 1 Ounce or 1000 Milligrams1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds1 ounce of gold = 28,349.5 milligrams
10 Kilogram Prototype Image - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilogram Metric Units of masskgmggMass refers to the amount of matter in an object.The base unit of mass in the metric system in the kilogram and is represented by kg.Metric Units1 Kilogram (km) = 1000 Grams (g)1 Gram (g) = 1000 Milligrams (mg)Which is larger?A. 1 kilogram or 1500 gramsB milligrams or 1 gramC. 12 milligrams or 12 kilogramsD. 4 kilograms or 4500 gramsKilogram Prototype Image -
11 English vs. Metric Units Which is larger?A. 1 liter or 1 gallonB. 1 liter or 1 quartC. 1 milliliter or 1 fluid ounce1 fl oz = ml1 12-oz can of soda would equal approximately 355 ml.1 gallon = 3.79 litersIt would take approximately 3 ¾ 1-liter bottles to equal a gallon.1 quart = liters
12 Metric UnitskLcLmLLVolume is the amount of space an object takes up.The base unit of volume in the metric system in the liter and is represented by L or l.Metric Units1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL)1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cm3 (or cc) = 1 gram*Which is larger?A. 1 liter or 1500 millilitersB. 200 milliliters or 1.2 litersC. 12 cm3 or 1.2 milliliters*
13 Measuring VolumeWe will be using graduated cylinders to find the volume of liquids and other objects.Read the measurement based on the bottom of the meniscus or curve. When using a real cylinder, make sure you are eye-level with the level of the water.What is the volume of water in the cylinder? _____mLWhat causes the meniscus?A concave meniscus occurs when the molecules of the liquid attract those of the container. The glass attracts the water on the sides.
14 Measuring Liquid Volume What is the volume of water in each cylinder?Images created atABCPay attention to the scales for each cylinder.
15 Measuring Solid Volume 10 cm9 cm8 cmWe can measure the volume of regular object using the formula length x width x height._____ X _____ X _____ = _____We can measure the volume of irregular object using water displacement.Amount of H2O with object = ______ About of H2O without object = ______ Difference = Volume = ______
16 Temperature Scales How hot? How cold? direction of Heat TransferCelsius – C Freezing Point of Water100 0C Boiling Point of WaterKelvin = C° + 273No degree signs are usedO Kelvin = Ccoldest possible temperature
17 What is the metric unit for…? Length – sizemeter (m)Mass – amount of matterKilogram (kg) or gram (g)Volume – space something takes upLiter (l) or centimeters cubed (cm3)Temperature – amount of heatKelvin (K) = celsius + 273
18 Density Measure of how much matter is squeezed into a given space density = massvolume
19 Which one is more dense?A block of wood and a block of steel have the same volume
20 What do you think?What happens to the density of an object if it is cut into pieces?Which has the greater density, a single uranium atom or Earth?
21 Scientific Notation coefficient x 10 raised to a power Single gram of hydrogen602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 molecules =6.02 x 1023 moleculesMass of an atom of goldgrams =3.27 x grams
22 Practice36,0003.6 x 104503,000,0005.03 x 1087.6 x 10-4
23 The valid digits of a number Significant FiguresThe valid digits of a number In measurement: includes all of the digits that are known, plus a last digit that is estimated
24 Significant Figures Significant: Not significant nonzero digits final zeros after the decimal pointszeros between two other significant digitsNot significantzeros used solely for spacing the decimal point are not significant.
25 Examples each have only two sig figs 7.1 x 10-3 meter 4.2 x 10-1 meter
26 # of significant figures Value5.605.60.0120.01200.0012# of significant figures325
27 RoundingIf the digit immediately to the right of the last significant digit is less than 5, it is dropped5 or greater - last significant digit increased by 141.58 square meters 41.6 square meters
28 Practice Round 65.145 meters to 4 sig figs Round 100.1°C to 1 sig fig Round 154 cm to 2 sig figs150Round kilograms to 2 sig figs
29 Measurements with an Unlimited Number of Significant Digits CountingExample: 23 people in the classroom(Not 22.9 or 23.1) ……………….Exactly defined quantitiesExample: 60 minutes = 1 hour……………………..
30 Calculation Rules calculated answer cannot be too precise not more precise than the least precise measurementMultiplication and Divisionsame number of sig figs as the measurement with the least number of sig figsAddition and Subtractionsame number of decimal places as the measurement with the least number of decimal places
31 Accuracy and Precision How close a measurement comes to the actual value of what is being measuredPrecisionHow close a series of measurements are to one another
32 Error Difference between accepted value and experimental value error = experimental value – accepted value% error = x 100%erroraccepted value
33 Error % error = x 100% 99.1°C – 100.0°C x 100% 100.0°C 0.9°C x 100% 0.9%erroraccepted value===