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Gross Anatomy of Urinary system

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1 Gross Anatomy of Urinary system
Medical ppt

2 Urinary system

3 Functions of Urinary System
Kidneys carry out four functions Filter nitrogenous wastes, toxins, ions, etc. from blood to be excreted as urine. Regulate volume and chemical composition of blood (water, salts, acids, bases). Produce regulatory enzymes. Renin – regulates BP/ kidney function Erythropoietin – stimulates RBC production from marrow. Metabolism of Vitamin D to active form.

4 Urinary System Two Kidneys Two Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra
Perform all functions except actual excretion. Two Ureters Convey urine from Kidneys to Urinary Bladder Urinary Bladder Holds Urine until excretion Urethra Conveys urine from bladder to outside of body

5 Renal Connective Tissue
• Renal fascia- anchors the kidneys to nearby structures. It is dense connective tissue • Adipose capsule/Pararenal Fat Mass of fat tissue that surrounds renal capsule Functions Keeps kidney in place Provide cushion effects • Renal capsule- Layer of dense connective tissue that surrounds kidney and supports the soft internal tissues.

6 Position of the Kidneys
Kidneys are located on either side of the vertebral column: left kidney lies superior to right kidney superior surface capped by adrenal gland

7 Location and Position of the Kidneys
The kidney is positioned between the 12th thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae. It is retroperitoneal (lies on the posterior abdominal wall, posterior to the peritoneum). Right kidney is lower than left kidney due to the shape of the liver. Lateral surface of kidney is convex while medial is concave.

8 External Anatomy of Kidney
Average size – 12cm x 6cm x 3 cm Weights 150 grams or 5 oz Surrounded by three membranes (deep to superficial) Renal capsule – fibrous barrier for kidneys. Adipose capsule – fatty tissue designed for protection / stability. Renal fascia – dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors kidneys/ adrenals to surroundings.

9 External Anatomy of the Kidney
Lateral surface- convex Medial surface is concave Renal Hilum Indentation where blood vessels, nerves and ureters enter and exit the kidneys. Renal Sinus Internal cavity within kidney.

10 Internal Anatomy of the Kidney
• Cortex - Superficial region of kidney. It is light and granular • Medulla - Deep central region of the kidney. Deep layer It is darker • Renal pyramids- Cone shaped structure within the renal medulla. Base lies against cortex Apex is the papilla • Renal column- Extensions of cortex that separate renal pyramids within the medulla.

11 Kidney Internal Anatomy
Renal Pelvis Flat funnel-shaped expansion of ureter Major Calices Large cup-shaped branches of renal pelvis Minor Calices Cup-shaped divisions of major calices Surround papilla of pyramid

12 Renal Lobe Consists of: One renal pyramid
overlying area of renal cortex adjacent tissues of renal columns

13 Blood Flow – Arteries Renal arteries Segmental arteries Lobar arteries
Interlobar arteries Arcuate arteries Interlobular arteries Afferent arterioles

14 Blood Flow – Veins From nephron Interlobular veins Arcuate veins
Interlobar veins Renal vein

15 Ureters Continuation of renal pelvis
Slender tubes that transport urine from kidneys to bladder Retroperitoneal/Runs behind the peritoneum

16 Urinary Bladder and Urethra

17 Urinary Bladder A collapsible muscular sac Stores and expels urine
- Full bladder – spherical Expands into the abdominal cavity - Empty bladder – lies entirely within the pelvis Prostate gland: Found in In males - Lies directly inferior to the bladder - Surrounds the urethra

18 Urinary Bladder Muscular sac that stores and expels urine Location
Pelvic floor Posterior to public symphysis Anterior to Rectum in males Vagina & uterus in females

19 Urinary Bladder and Urethra in Male and Female
Trigone of the urinary bladder has three openings; - Two openings from the ureters One opening to the urethra

20 Structure of the Urinary Bladder
Male: Penis Dual function Female: External urethral orifice

21 Structure of the Urethra

22 Urethra Passes through the length of the penis In females
Length of 3–4 cm In males – 20 cm in length – three named regions Prostatic urethra Passes through the prostate gland Membranous urethra Through the urogenital diaphragm Spongy (penile) urethra Passes through the length of the penis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

23 Urethral Sphincter Internal urethral sphincter
Involuntary smooth muscle External urethral sphincter Voluntarily inhibits urination Relaxes when one urinates

24 Medical ppt

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