Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Computer Terminology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Computer Terminology Hardware and SoftwareIntroduction to Computer Terminology
2 Contents Introducing Your Computer Types of Computers Hardware Basics Computer Memory and Storage BasicsSoftware BasicsComputer Network Basics
3 You Will Learn Key Terms How computers work To identify hardware personal computer (PC)central processing unit (CPU)bitbytehardwareinputoutputrandom-access memory (RAM)read-only memory (ROM)storage devicesoftwareoperating system (OS)networkHow computers workTo identify hardwareHow memory and storage are usedTo identify softwareHow networks work
4 Computers can be grouped by size, purpose, and number of users. Type of ComputerNumber of User at One TimeSizeTypical User/PurposePersonal computer (PC) (microcomputer)OneFits on a desk, on a lap, or in a handUsed by individuals for organizing information, creating products, and entertainmentMinicomputerSeveral to hundredsOccupies part of a roomUsed by small to medium-sized organizations, such as schoolsMainframe (super computer)ThousandsRoom-sizedUsed by large corporations and government agencies
5 Personal Computers PCs and Macs Personal computers are grouped by the software they use:PC –Microsoft WindowsGoogle ChromeAndroidMac - uses the Macintosh operating systemTablet – use Android, Microsoft, or Macintosh operating systemsExamples of personal computers are:DesktopsLaptopsAll-in-OneTablet
6 How Does My Computer Work? The “brain” of a computer is the central processing unit (CPU). When the CPU receives and carries out an instruction, it has completed one cycle.Computer’s speed = number of cycles completed in one secondCycles are measured in:Megahertz (MHz) = millions of cycles per secondGigahertz (GHz) = billions of cycles per secondcentral processing unit (CPU)A microprocessor, or tiny computer chip, that receives and carries out all the instructions given to a computer.
7 Intel Processors AMD Processors Types of CPUs There are two main types of CPUs found in computers today: 32-bit and 64-bit. In addition to this, CPUs can be broken down into types based on the manufacturer and version as well.Intel ProcessorsAMD Processors
8 The terms 32-bit and 64-bit refer to the way a computer's processor (also called a CPU), handles information.The 64-bit version of Windows handles large amounts of random access memory (RAM) more effectively than a 32-bit system.
9 Bits, Bytes, and Binary Numbers Bits and bytes are small pieces of computerized data that communicate commands to a computer’s CPU:A bit is either a 1 or a 0 (binary digits).A byte contains eight bits.Each letter in the English language is represented by one byte.bitThe smallest unit of computerized data.byteThe building block for all information that flows through a computer.
10 How Big Is a Terabyte? Common storage units: Kilobyte (KB) = 1,000 bytesMegabyte (MB) = 1,000 bytes, or 1 million (1,000,000) bytesGigabyte (GB) = 1,000 MB, or 1 billion (1,000,000,000) bytesTerabyte (TB) = 1,000 GB, or 1 trillion (1,000,000,000,000) bytes
11 Your computer may use hardware like the components shown here. The collection of physical pieces, or components, that make up a computer.Your computer may use hardware like the components shown here.
12 Hardware can be inside or outside the computer: The CPU and hard drive are inside the computer.The keyboard, monitor, and printer are outside the computer and must be connected by cables.
13 What Are Input and Output Devices? Information flows between you and your computer through input and output devices. Examples of input devices are:keyboardmousescannerdigital camerajoystickExamples of output devices are:monitorprinterspeakers
14 When Do I Use RAM and ROM?When you use your computer to perform any type of task, you are using two types of memory:Type of MemoryWhat Does It Do?When Is It Used?Read-only memory (ROM)Stores permanent information like telling the computer how to start upWhen you turn a computer on or offRandom-access memory (RAM)Stores temporary information when you are working in a fileWhen you start and use softwareread-only memory (ROM)Memory that permanently stores data and that cannot be erased or changed.random-access memory (RAM)Temporary memory that a computer uses to store data and process information while working in a program. It is erased when the computer is turned off.
15 Hardware and SoftwareA desktop computer has input and output devices attached to ports and an optical drive
16 Hardware and Software to Get You Started USB flash driveSmall storage devicePlugs into a USB portCan store music, photos, documents, and other dataSmall, easy to use, inexpensiveEasily moved from computer to computerUSB flash drive
17 Software is the set of instructions that lets you “talk” to your computer. Software translates commands into bits and bytes. Different types of software have different functions:Operating system (OS) software - makes your computer workApplication software - lets you do different tasks on your computerUtility software - helps you maintain your computer and keep it in good running conditionsoftwareA set of instructions, also called a program or application, that tells a computer how to perform tasks.operating system (OS)Software that controls all the other software programs and allows a computer to perform basic tasks.Technology in Your Life
18 How Do I Use Software?It is important to choose the right software program for the type of task you want to do:Technology in Your Life
19 What Is an Operating System? The operating system (OS) controls all other software and allows the hardware devices to work properly. Some popular operating systems are:Microsoft Windows - for PCs, cellphonesMac OS - for Apple computers, cellphonesLinux - for very large network computersAndroid- for tablets and computersWhat Is a GUI?Nearly all modern operating systems use a graphical user interface (GUI). This lets users click on images or text on the screen instead of having to type commands.
20 A computer network is a group of computers connected together A computer network is a group of computers connected together. Networks allow people to share:informationhardwarestorage devicesInternet connectionsA network allows you to send data back and forth between different computers, servers, storage devices, and shared output devices:networkA group of computers connected together, often through a central server, using telephone lines, cables, satellite links, radio, and/or other communication devices.Technologyin Your Life
21 The Internet is the biggest network there is. Types of networks are: Local-area network (LAN) - covers a small area, such as a school or officeWide-area network (WAN) - covers a large geographic area, such as an international corporationIntranet - lets people within an organization or business share information
22 Key Terms personal computer (PC) central processing unit (CPU) bit bytehardwareinputoutputrandom-access memory (RAM)read-only memory (ROM)storage devicesoftwareoperating system (OS)network