4 Measuring PopulationDeath rate – the number of deaths per year for every 1000 peopleBirth rate – the number of births per year for every 1000 peoplePopulation growth occurs when the birth rate is higher than the death rate.Population decline occurs when the death rate is higher than the birth rateImmigration can also impact population growth
5 Challenges of Population Growth Keeping up with food productionShortages of water, housing, and clothingIf the birth rate is high then too much of the population would be young people who cannot contribute to food productionMany scientists believe that even with rapid population growth technology is advancing to be able to keep up with the growing population
6 Negative Population Growth Recently many countries in Europe have experienced negative population growth (death rate > birth rate)This also creates problemsDifficult to find workersLabor must be recruited from other countries which can cause tensions between the newcomers and the European nation
7 Population Distribution Population distribution – the pattern of human settlementThe population distribution of the world is extremely uneven – humans live in areas where there is water and where the climates are not harsh.Population density – the average number of people living on a square mile of landTo calculate population density total population of a country and divide by its total land area
8 Let’s find Population Density AustraliaItalyShanghai, ChinaBangladeshMexicoBrazilMonacoNew York City, NYCanadaMongoliaChicago, ILChinaRussiaOwensboro, KYCubaSouth KoreaEgyptTuvaluKentuckyGermanyUnited KingdomAlaskaIcelandRhode IslandIndiaUnited StatesIraqMumbai, IndiaIsrael
11 Population MovementMigration – the movement of people from place to placePeople migrate for many different reasonsUrbanization – the growth in population of urban areas due to migrationAbout half of the worlds population lives in citiesRefugees – people who are forced to leave their country to escape persecution or disaster.