Presentation on theme: "Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge"— Presentation transcript:
1 Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge Essentials ofOrganizational Behavior, 10/eStephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. JudgeChapter 11Leadership
2 After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Define the leadership and contrast leadership and management.Summarize the conclusions of trait and behavioral theories.Assess contingency theories of leadership by their level of support.Compare and contrast charismatic leadership, transformational leadership, and authentic leadership.Identify when leadership may not be necessary.Assess whether charismatic and transformational leadership generalize across cultures.
3 Leadership vs. Management About coping with changeEstablish direction with a vision.Align resources and inspire workers to complete the vision.About coping with complexityBrings about order and consistencyDraws up plans, structures, and monitors results.Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals.
4 Traditional Theories of Leadership: Trait Theories Differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristicsExtraversion has strongest relation to leadershipConscientiousness and Openness to Experience also strongly related to leadershipAgreeableness and Emotional Stability are not correlated with leadership
5 Traditional Theories of Leadership: Behavioral Theories Behaviors can be taught – traits cannot Leaders are trained – not born
6 Behavioral Theories: Ohio State Studies Developed two categories of leadership behavior:Initiating StructureConsiderationAttempts to organize work, work relationships, and goalsConcern for followers’ comfort, well-being, status, and satisfaction
7 Behavioral Theories: University of Michigan Studies Developed two dimensions of leadership behavior:OrientedProductionEmployeeEmphasize the technical or task aspects of the job: people are means to an endEmphasize interpersonal relations and accept individual differences
8 Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid® Combination of Ohio State and University of Michigan studies:Concern for ProductionConcern for PeopleTry to emphasize BOTH
9 Attempts to match leadership style with work conditions: Contingency TheoriesAttempts to match leadership style with work conditions:Fiedler ModelLeader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
10 Fiedler Leadership Model Least-Preferred Co-worker (LPC) determines leadership style (fixed trait)Relationship orientedTask orientedMatch leader’s style with degree of situational control:Leader-member relationsTask structurePosition power
11 Fiedler Model: Matching Leaders to Situations Either change leaders or the situation to improve effectiveness
12 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leaders treat followers differentlyIn-group members:Close to leader in attitude or personalityHave more of the leader’s attentionGet special privilegesHave higher performance ratingsLower turnoverGreater satisfaction
13 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model While the leader does the choosing, it is the followers’ characteristics that drive the decision
14 Contemporary Approaches to Leadership Leaders as communicatorsFraming the meaning of eventsLeaders inspire followers through words, ideas, and behaviors:Charismatic LeadershipTransformational LeadershipAuthentic Leadership
15 Charismatic Leadership Attributions of heroic leadership abilities when followers observe certain behaviors:VisionPersonal Risk-takingSensitivity toward FollowersExtraordinary Behaviors
16 Charismatic Leaders: Born or Made? Charisma can be created by:Developing an aura of charismaBe optimisticBe passionately enthusiasticCommute with body, not just wordsDrawing others in – inspire othersTapping into emotions – bring out the potential in others
17 How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers Articulate an appealing visionCommunicates a new set of valuesModel behaviors for those valuesExpress dramatic behavior
18 Charisma and Situational Dependency Charisma strongly correlated to high performance and satisfactionBest used when:Environment is uncertain or stressfulIdeology is involvedMost closely associated with upper level executives
19 The Potential Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership Use organizational resources for personal benefitRemake companies in their own imageAllow self-interest and personal goals to override organization’s goals
20 Transformational Leadership Transactional leaders - motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirementsTransformational leaders - inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization
22 Why Transformational Leadership Works CreativityFollowers are encouraged to be more innovative and creativeGoalsFollowers pursue more ambitious goals and have more personal commitment to themVisionEngenders commitment from followers and greater sense of trust
23 Transformational Vs. Charismatic Leadership Both positively related to motivation, satisfaction, performance, effectiveness, and profitabilityTransformational leadership MAY be a broader concept than charismaThe two forms may be the same
24 Authentic Leadership: Ethics as the Basis for Leadership? Authentic leaders know who they are, what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidlyCreate trustEncourage open communicationSocialized Charismatic Leadership
25 Challenges to the Leadership Construct Attribution Theory of LeadershipPerformance outcomes are attributed to leaders actionsAppearance has more to do with leadership than outcomesSubstitutes and NeutralizersOrganizational variables can neutralize the leader’s influence or act as substitutes for leadershipLeader becomes irrelevant
26 Finding and Creating Effective Leaders Selection:Personality tests for leadership traitsInterviews to match relevant situation-specific experience to job situationTraining:Train those willing to change their behaviorTeach general management skillsTeach charismatic and transformational leadership skills – greatest organizational outcomes result
27 Charisma and transformational leadership important in all Global ImplicationsGLOBE Leadership Project Results:Brazil – Leaders are participative and humaneFrance – Bureaucratic, task-oriented, and autocraticEgypt – Participative but status-awareChina – Initiating structure and consideration important: status differences but participation valuedCharisma and transformational leadership important in all
28 Implications for Managers Leaders influence group performanceLeadership success depends somewhat on having “the right stuff”Leadership depends on the situationTransformational skills becoming more importantSelect and train based on traits and qualities
29 Keep in Mind…Leaders can influence a group toward the achievement of goalsBest leaders are ethical and authentic in addition to being charismaticIn most cultures, charisma and vision are valued – although their means of expression may differ
30 SummaryDefined the leadership and contrasted leadership and management.Summarized the conclusions of trait and behavioral theories.Assessed contingency theories of leadership by their level of support.Compared and contrasted charismatic leadership, transformational leadership, and authentic leadership.Identified when leadership may not be necessary.Assessed whether charismatic and transformational leadership generalized across cultures.
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