4 1780's Many American’s poor High state taxes to pay People borrow money and then go into debtCan’t pay debt – State Courts would get involvedLose farms and then sent to prison
5 1786 Massachusetts Farmers protest They refuse to let the courts meet Weapons: Pitchforks and gunsClosed down the courthouse and destroyed debt records
6 1787 Daniel Shays – leads farmers in a revolt Try to take over a Massachusetts arsenalArsenal – a weapons storehouseNo national army, so governor sends state soldiersShay’s Rebellion – people think that the national government could not keep order or protect them
7 Ideas for Change James Madison Virginia Country needed a stronger national governmentEach state had their own governor, but no single national leader9 states had to agree before a law could be passedPatrick HenryVirginiaWanted to keep the Articles of Confederation as they wereHe said they fought the British so no powerful government would be ruling their lives
8 1787 All states, except Rhode Island, send delegates to a convention Location: PhiladelphiaThe Goal: FIX THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
9 REVIEW What is the Articles of Confederation? 1777 – Approved by CongressEach state elects representatives to serve in a national legislatureEach state, large & small, had ONE vote in congress
10 Weaknesses Most power was with the states Before any law could be passed at least 9 out of 13 states had to approve itRepresentatives RARELY agreedNo state wanted to be under control of another stateIf a law was passed, Congress had no power to enforce it
11 Other limitsCongress had the power to declare war, make treaties, and borrow moneyThey could NOT control trade or collect taxesTo help with war debt, they asked the states for money, but could not force them to payCongress also depended on the states for the nation’s defense
12 Constitutional Convention May 178755 delegates from 12 states meet at the Pennsylvania State HouseGeorge Washington – president of the Convention
14 Creating the Constitution Talks would be privateThis allowed them to speak freely & make good decisionsWindows in the State House coveredGuards were at the doorsNo one left!
15 Edmund Randolph From Virginia Asked the delegates to get rid of the Articles of ConfederationNeed to write a new plan of governmentThe next day – delegates agreed
16 Relationship: States & National government Different views, but finally agreed to strengthen the federal system.National & State governments would share powerStates keep some powerFederal government – power over matters that affected the nation as a whole
17 Finished The Constitution became the supreme law of the land It helped found the American RepublicRepublic – the people choose representatives to run the government
19 How would states be represented in Congress? Virginia PlanCongress would have 2 parts (houses)# of Representatives based on the state’s populationHigher populated states would have more votesFavored: Virginia, Massachusetts, PennsylvaniaNew Jersey PlanWilliam Paterson – “Unfair”Congress would have 1 houseEach state would be equally representedSmall states would have the same # of representatives as large states
20 Working Together Weeks of arguing over representation in Congress Finally, each side realized they must compromiseCompromise – give up some of what you want
22 The Great CompromiseRoger Sherman of Connecticut led a group of delegates and they presented a NEW PLANThe Connecticut Compromise was based on 2 houses.In one house = representation based on populationThe other house = equal representation
23 The Great Compromise Both houses could present a BILL Bill – an idea for a new lawBut, BOTH houses had to approve the bill before it could become a lawLarge states thought this gave smaller states to much powerSo, only the house with representation based on population could propose tax bills
25 RECAP ~ The Great Compromise LARGE STATESGave up the idea of having more representatives in both houses of CongressSMALL STATESGave up the idea of a single house of Congress with an equal number of representatives for each state
27 REMEMBER!The number of each state’s representatives in one house of Congress would be determined by its population.Southern states had slaves.Should they count as part of the population?
28 Different Points of View Southern delegatesWanted slaves to count as part of the population (this would give them more representativesNorthern delegatesFelt slaves should not countThey argued slaves were not allowed to vote and did not hold any other rights of citizenshipWant slavery ended
29 The Three-Fifths Compromise Agreement comesThree-fifths of the total number of slaves in each state would count toward the number of representativesMany still spoke out against slaveryGouverneur Morris of PA called slavery “the curse of heaven on the states where it prevailed.”
30 A continuing issueDelegates were afraid if slavery is banned the Constitution would not be approved in the southern statesDelegates agreed that Congress could not stop states from importing slaves from other countries before 18081808 – Congress banned slave trade with other countriesBut slaves could still be bought and sold within the U.S.
31 SUMMARYInstead of just fixing the Articles of Confederation, the delegates at the Constitutional Convention decided to write a new constitution. The Great Compromise resolved conflicts over representation in the government.
32 James MadisonArgued the country needed to replace the Articles of ConfederationBecomes our 4th President of the United States
33 Edmund Randolph Introduced the Virginia Plan Under the plan, the number of representatives of each state would be based on the state’s population
34 William Paterson Introduced the New Jersey Plan Each state would have the same number of representativesFederal Government would have one house
35 Roger Sherman Presented the Connecticut Compromise This became known as the GREAT COMPROMISE
36 Gouverneur MorrisHe spoke out against slavery, even after the Three-Fifths Compromise
37 What was one major shortcoming of the Articles of Confederation? The national government was too weak
38 What event in 1787 caused many leaders in the United States to call for a Constitutional Convention? Shay’s Rebellion
39 What does compromise mean in relationship to the Constitutional Convention? To give up some of what you want in order to reach an agreement
40 Under the Three-fifths Compromise, which group in the United States was not totally included in each state’s population count for representation in Congress?Enslaved African Americans
41 What problem in the U.S. was highlighted by the events of Shay’s Rebellion? The weakness of the national government
42 Who had to share the power to govern under the federal system? The national and the state governments
43 What was the main question of debate that needed to be resolved at the Constitutional Convention? How should representation in Congress be divided among the states.
44 What was the original purpose of the Constitutional Convention of 1787? To fix the Articles of Confederation
45 What agreement did the delegates at the Constitutional Convention finally reach under the Great Compromise?Congress would have two housesOne house having equal representation from each stateThe other house based on populationBoth houses could propose bills, but only the house in which representation was based on population could propose tax bills
46 What does it mean that the United States of America is a republic? It means the U.S. has a form of government in which the people elect representatives to govern the country.
47 How was a new plan of government developed at the Constitutional Convention? The delegates developed a new plan of government after much debate and compromise.