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Course Requirements, Syllabus, and Review Topics by unit

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1 Course Requirements, Syllabus, and Review Topics by unit
Earth Science Classes Course Requirements, Syllabus, and Review Topics by unit

2 Contact Information I can be reached: by calling the school (718) My is My website address is My webpage on the school website is:

3 Classroom Rules Be on time for class – that means in your seat when the bell rings Be prepared for class with writing materials – pen and paper No hats or do-rags in class No electronics in class including cell phones Be respectful of others Absolutely no food in class

4 What is needed for this class?
A pen or pencil and a notebook everyday. A copy of the Earth Science reference tables (supplied) These are available in languages besides English – just ask A binder to hold handouts, class work and home works. You will also need an inexpensive calculator capable of basic arithmetic for homework assignments.

5 Grades in Earth Science
35% Exams, quizzes, mid-terms and finals 35% Class participation 10% Homework 20% Laboratory Activities

6 Grading policies Rubrics show student performance levels.
To inform students of the expectations I have for them, and to make grading more objective, I use rubrics extensively in determining grades. This lets students see precisely what areas of a task they were successful on, and which areas need improvement. Rubrics are passed out to students before assignments so they know what is expected of them when they are given the task.

7 Tests are worth 35% These include quizzes, open book and take-home tests, and full-period exams, including the mid-term and final. Generally, to keep the values of these assessments proportional to their length and importance, I make each question worth 1 point. In this way a short quiz with 10 questions is worth half as much as a test with 20 questions. Full-period exams have some questions that require a more lengthy answer than a multiple-choice question and may have be worth two or three points while the entire exam is worth points. To increase the significance of the mid-term and final, these are worth 100 points each. Make-up tests are worth only partial credit unless the student presented a valid excuse for the absence. Make-up tests are worth 65% of the original test value.

8 Full-Period exams A full-period test is administered every 3 weeks.
Tests are returned the next day and we will go over the exam during class. Tests are posted on the website well in advance of the test date for you to preview.

9 Homework - 10% of your grade.
Homework values are calculated in a similar manner as tests with each question being worth one point. In this way, more lengthy assignments have a higher value. In some cases there are questions worth more than one point because they involve a more lengthy answer, multiple parts, or a mathematical calculation.

10 Class participation is 35%
This grade comes from attendance, class work, and participation in discussions. An attendance credit is given to each student. Students receive three points for coming to class on-time each day. This is reduced to one point if they enter the classroom after the bell rings, and zero points if they come in more than 20 minutes late. Students who present a valid excuse for their absence receive the three points for the day. Class work consists of reading and writing, and answering questions from the text, review book and worksheets. These are worth one point per question. Students who actively participate in class discussions are given additional points.

11 Laboratory exercises- 20%
Lab exercises are graded on a pass-fail basis and are worth either ten points or zero points. Incomplete labs are worth 0; labs must be complete to earn credit. Make-up labs are worth only partial credit. If the missing lab is made up during the marking period in which we performed it, the value is eight points. In the following marking period it is worth seven points, afterwards, only six points. Students have to achieve a lab average of 65% and complete no less than 600 minutes of hands-on laboratory exercises to pass lab.

12 What is Earth Science? Astronomy
During this portion of the course, we will learn about our solar system, the Milky Way galaxy, stars, planets, moons, comets and asteroids. We will also talk about the beginning of the universe, an event referred to as the big bang. We will discuss methods of determining where we are in the universe using a coordinate system. This section also includes how and why the Earth rotates on its axis, revolves around the sun in its orbit, and the causes for the seasons.

13 Energy The study of energy will include electromagnetic, potential, kinetic, and thermal energy. We will learn the difference between temperature and heat energy, and how energy is transferred and transformed. We will also discuss changes of state for matter, and how energy is involved. The Earth’s 2 sources of energy- internal and external will be discussed.

14 Meteorology Meteorology includes factors that are related to weather and climate. Some of these include temperature, moisture, pressure, wind and precipitation. We will discuss weather patterns and their causes, global warming, and long term weather patterns known as climate. We will learn how meteorologists are able to predict and forecast the weather. This section also includes the water cycle.

15 Geology Geology covers the different types of rocks-minerals, sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. Geology explains the processes that create and wear down rocks. This section of the course will also cover earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes and plate tectonics. We will learn some of the characteristics of rocks and minerals, and identification techniques. The last section of geology deals with ways of determining the age of the Earth using fossils, radioactive isotopes, and a brief examination of the Earth's 4.6 billion year history.

16 Reviewing Earth science
To help students review for classroom tests and the Regents exams, I post the actual tests online. Review sheets are also used. Vocabulary and concepts are presented. The following slides contain a copy of these review sheets.

17 Topic 1- Introduction to Earth's Changing Environment
Universe-All matter, time, energy and space that exists. Observation-The perception of some aspect of the environment made with one or more of the human senses-sight, hearing, touch, taste, or smell Instrument- A human-made device that extends the human senses beyond their normal limits. instruments increase the range of observations e.g. microscope, telescope, and quantify (give a quantity to) an observation. Example it is not a small amount of water, it is 37ml of water. Inference- An inference is an interpretation of an observation. A mental process that proposes causes, conclusions or explanations for what has been observed. An inference cannot be tested. It is based on our observation and also our past experiences. Prediction- A type of inference about the conditions and behavior of the environment in the future. Predictions can be tested even though they may not be – they must have the ability to be tested to be a prediction Classification- A group of similar observations and inferences, a taxonomy. Example- Birds – flightless birds – flightless, aquatic birds- from general to specific.

18 Measurement- A means of expressing an observation with greater accuracy or precision. Measurements include units. Basic units in the SI system include the meter for length, the kilogram for mass, and the second for time. Accuracy- How close a measurement comes to a true or accepted value. Example: You measure the force of gravity to be 9.6 m/s^2, since the accepted value is 9.806, your percent deviation is only 2%. You are 98% accurate. Precision-The ability to repeat a measurement and obtain nearly the same results each time. This may depend on the calibration of the measuring instruments. Example: You measure the force of gravity 3 times and get 8.9, 9.4 and 10.6 m/s^2. These readings are not precise-none are close to each other. Another time you take 3 measurements and get 9.2, 9.1, and These readings are not accurate, but they are precise. Lastly, you make 3 measurements and get 9.6, 9.8, and These readings are both accurate and precise. Mass- The amount of matter in an object, the number and size of its atoms. The more atoms and the larger the atoms, the more mass. Mass does not vary by location as weight does. Example: A student has a mass of 65kg. That is the mass of the student on Earth or the moon. The weight of the student on the moon would be 1/6 his/her weight on earth. Weight is the effect of gravity on a given mass. Volume- The amount of space that an object occupies is its volume. rectangular objects we multiply length, width and height. Irregular shaped objects – we use the water displacement method with a graduated cylinder.

19 Percent deviation- No measurement is perfect, they contain some error
Percent deviation- No measurement is perfect, they contain some error. Percent deviation is the difference from the accepted value divided by the accepted value multiplied by Example: You measure the mass of an object with an accepted mass of 125gm, but you get 127.5gm. The percent deviation. is: [(127.5gm-125gm) / 125gm] *100= [2.5gm/125gm]*100=2% Find the formula on the front cover of the reference tables. Density- The concentration of matter in an object and the ratio of the object’s mass to its volume. High mass with low volume equals high density. Low mass or high volume equals low density. Mass/ volume = density units are kg/cubic meters. Formula on the ESRT Density is constant for objects made of a uniform material – no matter what size piece you have. density is how things will sort themselves out – always with the most dense object on the bottom and the least dense on top. Density is responsible for layering and motion. Rate of change- How much a measurable aspect changes over time is the rate of change. Example: It is 60 degrees out when you wake up. Two hours later, it is 70 degrees. The rate of change is 70degrees-60 degrees) / 2 hours or 5 degrees per hour. Formula on the ESRT Cyclic change- Changes that occur with a regular or predictable cycle. Ex. tides, night and day, the seasons, full moons, and many more. Natural hazard- A non-human situation that may threaten life. Ex: Asteroids, blizzards, earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes, thunderstorms, tornados, and volcanoes. Interface- A boundary between 2 regions with different properties. Example At the beach where the shore meets the water is the land-water interface. Dynamic equilibrium- The balancing of opposing forces. Example: The level of Lake Erie remains nearly constant, it is in dynamic equilibrium because the water that flows out into the Niagara River is replaced by water that flows into it from the Detroit River.

20 Natural resources-Materials and energy sources found in the environment. Many natural resources especially fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are considered non-renewable. They will renew themselves, it just takes hundreds of millions of years! Pollution- A concentration of any substance or energy that adversely affects humans and the environment. Example: An electric plant discharges water that it uses for cooling. The increased temperature of the water around the plant kills fish and plant life around the plant. Amount of error – The difference between your measurement and the accepted value, always a positive number (absolute value), contains units. Example I measure 78 cm but the actual length is 80 cm. the amount of error is 2 cm. Scientific notation – a way of expressing numbers without writing a lot of zeros. the zeros are replaced with a times 10 to some power, the power is how many zeros were replaced. Example 78,000 – 7.8 x 104 In scientific notation, only a single digit is ever written on the left side of the decimal place. Average or mean – a number which is between the highest and lowest number in a list. Found by adding up the numbers in the list and dividing by how many numbers are in the list. Graphing- dependent variable, the thing that changes as the experiment progresses always goes on the y-axis. Independent variable, always on the x-axis. Graphs include ALL of the following: a title, a label on each axis including units (Note: the units are not the label), a layout that is linear and uses 90% of the graph paper (not bunched up in a corner or running off the paper), a line-of-best-fit that shows the trend of the data (not necessarily a connect the dots line)

21 Topic 2-Measuring Earth
Atmosphere- The layer of gasses that surrounds Earth above the oceans and land. Contains for sub-layers. from the ground going up: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The ozone layer is in the stratosphere and protects life on Earth from harmful UV radiation. As altitude increases in the atmosphere, temperature both increases and decreases as various layers either absorb radiation or do not absorb radiation. Most of the atmosphere (78%) is composed of nitrogen gas, not oxygen. Coordinate system- A system for determining the coordinates of a point. Maps use latitude and longitude to accomplish this. Contour lines- These are isolines that connect points of equal elevation. Contour interval – the vertical distance between contour lines on a topographic map. Crust- The upper portion or top layer of the lithosphere. Degrees – parts of a circle. a complete circle has 360 degrees. Degrees are broken into 60 smaller parts called minutes and minutes each contain 60 equal parts called seconds. Thus a latitude or longitude may be written as 45° 31’ 58” indicating 45 degrees, 31 minutes, 58 seconds. Earth’s interior- Everything between Earth’s crust and the center of the earth. From the center of the Earth to the crust these layers are: inner core, outer core, stiffer mantle, asthenosphere( plastic mantle), lithosphere and crust.

22 Elevation- The vertical distance or height above sea level
Elevation- The vertical distance or height above sea level. This is shown with different colors on a relief map and with contour lines on a topographic map. Equator- The halfway point between the north and south poles. The reference point for measuring latitude; has a latitude of 0° Field- Any region of space that has some measurable value of a given quantity at every point. Example: Magnetic or gravitational fields. Gradient- The rate of change from place to place within a field. The closer the isolines the higher the gradient, the faster or the steeper the change. Examples: Close isobars indicate strong changes in pressure, thus windy conditions; close contour lines indicate dramatic changes in elevation, thus steep terrain. Hydrosphere- The layer of liquid water between the atmosphere and the Earth’s interior. Most of the hydrosphere (66%) is composed of hydrogen, hence the name. Isolines- Lines that connect equal points of field values. Examples: Isotherms connect points of equal temperature; Isobars connect points of equal pressure.

23 Latitude- The angular distance north or south of the equator
Latitude- The angular distance north or south of the equator. A number between 0 (at the equator) and 90 (at the poles). Divides the Earth into a northern and southern hemisphere. Latitude always includes an N or S to indicate the hemisphere. The hemisphere can be determined on a map by checking to see in which direction the latitude increases. If latitude numbers increase going to the north, it is a map of the northern hemisphere. If numbers increase to the south- it is in the southern hemisphere. If your latitude is increasing, you are moving away from the equator and towards either pole. Lithosphere- The layer of rock that forms the solid outer shell of the Earth’s interior. Longitude- An angular distance east or west of the prime meridian. A number between Always includes a designation E or W to indicate the hemisphere. The hemisphere can be determined by checking to see in which direction the numbers are increasing. Whichever way longitude increases indicates the hemisphere the map is depicting. Meridian (of longitude) - A semi-circle on the surface of the Earth that connects the north and south poles. All meridians are the same length and run from pole to pole. Model- A model is a way of representing the properties of an object or system. Example: a globe. Pauses- The boundaries or interfaces of Earth’s atmosphere.

24 Prime meridian- A reference or starting point to measure angular distance east or west. The prime meridian passes through Greenwich, England because the English were the first navigators to establish the coordinate system. The prime meridian has a longitude of 0° Profile- The side view of an area’s landscape; a cut-a-way view Scale – A relation between distance on a map and distance in the real world. Shown as a ratio, or a statement ( 1 inch equals 40 miles) or a s a graphic line that indicates the distances. Topographic map- A model or contour map that indicates changes in elevation of the Earth’s surface.

25 Topic 3-Earth in the Universe
Celestial Object-Any object outside Earth’s atmosphere Universe-All time, matter, energy and space The Big Bang Theory-The theory that the universe started about 13 billion years ago with an incredible explosion of all matter and energy from an infinitesimally small point. Doppler Effect- The effect of wavelengths to be stretched longer when an object is traveling away from you, and compressed when the object is traveling towards you. With light the expansion (longer wavelengths) appear red, and the compression () shorter wavelength) appear blue Red Shift- The stretching of wavelengths of light as objects travel away from a viewer Galaxy-A collection of hundreds of billions of stars and gas and dust clouds in one region of space. Milky Way Galaxy-The spiral-shaped galaxy to which our solar system belongs. Star- a large ball of hydrogen and helium gas that produces energy through nuclear fusion. Nuclear Fusion-The process of combining protons and neutrons to form larger nuclei and release energy. Luminosity- How bright a star would be compared to the sun if it was at the same distance as the sun. Solar System-A collection of nine planets, 141 moons*, various asteroids, meteoroids, comets and dust that all orbit the sun * As of September 2004 Asteroid- A solid, rocky, usually metallic body that orbits the sun. Asteroids have various shapes and are smaller than planets. Most orbit in a belt between Mars and Jupiter.

26 Moon- The only natural satellite of the Earth
Comet- A mostly solid object with ice and water which evaporates as it approaches the sun leaving long and highly visible tails. Most comets are in long, highly elliptical orbits and take many years to complete one orbit of the sun. Meteors (Meteorites) - Small solid, rocky fragments that may enter the atmosphere. Meteors burn up, meteorites strike the earth. Impact Crater- The crater left from an impact from an asteroid, comet or large meteorite Impact Event- The collision of an asteroid, comet or other celestial object with another celestial object. Terrestrial Planets- Small diameter, high density rocky worlds closest to the sun. Jovian Planets- The gas giants-low in density, high mass due to large size, large diameters. Rotation- the spin on an imaginary axis that runs through the center of a planet. Revolution- The orbit of a celestial object around the sun. Ellipse- A conic section shaped like an oval with tow points called foci. Bodies in the solar system orbit the sun in elliptical orbits with the sun at one of the 2 focus points

27 Foci (focus) - The fixed points in an ellipse
Foci (focus) - The fixed points in an ellipse. The sum of the distance between any point on the ellipse and the 2 foci is a constant. Eccentricity- how oval or circular the ellipse is. Eccentricity equals the distance between the foci divided by the length of the major axis. Eccentricity must be between 0 and 1. O is a perfect circle, 1 is highly elliptical. Inertia-The resistance to change in motion that any object has. Inertia is directly proportional to mass. Gravitation- The force of attraction between any two objects. Gravity id directly proportional to the masses of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

28 Topic 4 -Motions of the earth, Moon and Sun
Axis (of rotation)-Imaginary axis which planets rotate about. Constellation-A group of stars that form a pattern and mark a region of the galaxy. Coriolis Effect- The effect of fluids to turn to the right in the northern hemisphere and the left in the southern hemisphere Eclipse- When a celestial object comes into the shadow of another celestial object it is called an eclipse. Foucault Pendulum-a freely swinging pendulum. Due to inertia it swings in the same direction as the earth turns. The pendulum appears to turn but the earth is turning. Provides evidence of earth’s rotation.

29 Geocentric Model- Earth at the center of the solar system/ universe
Heliocentric Model-The sun at the center of the solar system Local time-time based on earth’s rotation and the position of the sun Phases (of the moon)-The varying amounts of the lighted portion of the moon Tides-Cyclic rise and fall of ocean’s (and some large lakes) due to earth’s rotation and the gravitational effect of the moon. Time Zones-A way to solve the problem of local times being different everywhere.

30 Topic 5-Energy in Earth's Processes
Barrier interactions – When energy interacts with something in the environment, the energy may be reflected, absorbed or transmitted through the substance, but it is always conserved. Calorie- A unit of energy most usually associated with food. The quantity of heat required to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius. Condensation- The changing of a gas to a liquid, requires the gas to release heat energy. Conduction-The transfer of heat energy between objects that are in direct contact. Convection- The transfer of heat energy by the circulation of fluids. Fluids include anything that can flow, not just liquids. Hotter fluids have lower densities and rise, while cooler fluids have higher densities and sink. Convection is the primary method for heat distribution in the mantle, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and sun’s interior. These circulating fluids form convection currents, also called convection cells. Crystallization- The process of changing a liquid to a solid with a specific arrangement pattern of the atoms or molecules; they form crystals. Requires a release of energy.

31 Electromagnetic energy- (EM) -A type of energy that is radiated in the form of electromagnetic waves. They are distinguished from each other by their wavelengths. In order of increasing wavelength, they are: radio waves, microwaves, infrared (heat), visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays and gamma rays. Waves transmit energy, so the closer the waves (shorter wavelength) the more intense is the radiation. Electromagnetic spectrum-The spectrum of all electromagnetic waves. Listed in the ESRT in order of increasing wavelength. Energy- The ability to do work. There are many forms of energy, and in any interaction energy is always conserved. It cannot be created or destroyed, but it can change form. Most energy ends up as heat energy, a form of energy pollution. Heat energy-Infrared EM energy, which travels from areas of higher temperature to areas of lower temperature. Kinetic energy – The energy of any moving object. faster speed equals more kinetic energy. Mechanical energy- The energy of an object not related to atoms and molecules. Mechanical energy is the sum of potential and kinetic energy.

32 Melt – The process of changing a solid to a liquid by the absorption of energy.
Nuclear decay- The process of an unstable nucleus breaking apart and releasing sub-atomic particles and energy. Potential energy – The energy from position. A roller coaster at the top of a hill has a great deal of potential energy. as it coasts down the track the potential energy is changed to kinetic energy (speed) and heat energy through friction. Radiation- The transfer of heat energy through the EM spectrum, usually refers to the infrared portion. Refraction – The bending of light waves as they travel from one material to another material with a different density. Solidification- The process of changing a liquid to a solid, (freezing) requires a release of energy. Specific heat-The quantity of heat required to raise one gram of a particular substance one degree Celsius.

33 Sublimation – The term that refers to either a change from a gas to a solid (frost) (requires energy to be released) or the change from a solid to a gas (requires energy to be absorbed). Surface characteristics – Determines what will happen when energy interacts. Light colors increase reflection and decrease absorption, while dark colors are good absorbers. Texture also affects how the energy is reflected or absorbed. Temperature- The measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. Texture- The roughness or smoothness of a surface. Texture affects the amount of EM radiation absorbed or reflected. Smooth textures are better at reflection than absorption, while rough textures are better at absorption than at reflection. Vaporization-The changing of a liquid to a gas; requires the liquid to absorb energy. Also referred to as evaporation. Wavelength- The length of one wave from crest to crest. As wavelengths increase, the amount of energy being transported decreases. When waves are close together (short wavelengths) more energy is being transmitted.

34 Topic 6- Insolation and the Seasons
Angle of incidence-The incoming angle of the sun’s rays (insolation). The higher the angle, the greater the intensity of the radiation. Low angles, such as at sunrise and sunset spread the radiation over a much larger surface area, and so its intensity is much less. The amount of radiation you are receiving can be determined by looking at the size of your shadow. A small shadow equals a high intensity, a long shadow equals a low intensity. The angle of incidence varies with: 1) the time of day- its greatest at solar noon, 2) latitude – its greatest in the tropics, and 3) seasons – its greatest in the summer. Deforestation-The process of cutting entire forests down to clear land for human uses. This process alters the balance of nature, influences global warming and increases the extinction of species. Equinox – The first day of spring and fall is called an equinox. It means the Earth experiences equal periods of day and night (12 hours). These days are March 21 and September 21.

35 El Niño- A warming event in the Pacific Ocean surface temperatures which disrupt weather on a global scale producing major storms and hurricanes. Global warming-The process of raising the temperature of the Earth by trapping large quantities of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, primarily through burning fossil fuels. Greenhouse gasses-Gasses that absorb large quantities of infrared radiation and trap the heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gasses. These gases are primarily carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane.

36 Heat budget-The dynamic equilibrium between the total amount of heat that an object receives and the amount that it radiates. Ice ages-A shift in the heat budget which results in more energy being released than absorbed. Insolation- INcoming SOLar radiATION is IN-SOL-ATION. Radiation from the sun. Land and Water heating differences – Land always heats up faster and cools down faster than water does. This is because of 4 factors: 1) Water has a very high specific heat- it takes a great deal of energy to change its temperature, 2) change of state – water can change from a liquid to a gas, land does not change states. Energy that is used to change the state of matter is not available to raise its temperature. This energy becomes latent heat, a form of potential energy. 3) transparency – water is very transparent to radiation, land is not at all transparent to radiation. When light travels to the bottom of a body of water, it is heating up all of that water. The land stops the light at its surface and heats up much more quickly. 4) Convection currents distribute heat in the water. Land is not fluid and has no convection currents so all the heat remains at the land surface, while it is distributed throughout the water. Ozone- A type of oxygen in which three molecule of oxygen join together. The ozone layer exists in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and is vital to absorption of damaging ultraviolet radiation, which causes skin cancer.

37 Seasons – A change of weather that primarily affects the mid latitudes (23½°- 66½°) Latitudes less than 23°are mostly warm all year round, while latitudes near the poles (above 66°) are mostly cold all year. The change of seasons is caused by three factors. 1) The Earth’s tilted axis at 23½°, 2) the fact the Earth revolves around the sun once a year, and 3) parallelism the Earth’s axis always points in the same direction in space. The Earth’s orbit around the sun is not a perfect circle, it is an oval shape called an ellipse. At certain times of the year the Earth is closer to or farther from the sun, but THE CHANGING DISTANCE DOES NOT CAUSE SEASONS! In the northern hemisphere, we are closest to the sun in winter, and farthest away in summer. The northern and southern hemispheres experience the opposite seasons. When we are having winter they are having summer, and vice-versa. Solstice – The first day of winter and the first day of summer is called a solstice. On these days either the north pole or the south pole is pointed most directly at the sun. The polar regions (above 66½° latitude experience either 3 months of daylight ( the sun never sets) during the summer, or 3 months of night (the sun never rises) during winter. Sunspot- A darker region of the sun’s surface where the temperature is lower than the surrounding areas. Caused by magnetic storms on the sun’s surface and releases massive amounts of solar particles (solar storms) Transpiration- The process by which living organisms (plants and animals) release water vapor into the atmosphere.

38 Factors affecting the amount of insolation an area receives:
1. Angle of incidence When the angle of incidence is closest to 90° the insolation intensity is the greatest. By day- The angle of incidence is greater at noon than any other time of the day. The angle of incidence is the lowest at sunrise and sunset. By season- The angle of incidence is the greatest in the summer and the lowest in the winter. For NYS, about 72° in summer at noon and 25° in winter at noon 2. Cloud cover When the sky is mostly cloudy, there is more insolation reflected back into space. When skies are clear, more insolation reaches the surface. 3. Earth's shape and latitude Because the Earth is a sphere, the latitudes receiving the greatest insolation are those closest to the equator. Polar regions receive the least amount of insolation because the angle of incidence is lowest at these latitudes. The size of your shadow is an indicator of the intensity of insolation. Small shadow = high intensity. Large/long shadow = low intensity 4. Variation in duration of insolation Because of the Earth's tilted axis, latitudes experiencing summer not only receive a higher angle of incident insolation, but a longer duration as well. 15 hours. Latitudes experiencing winter receive the shortest duration of insolation., about 9 hours

39 5. Time delay in maximum and minimum temperatures.
Because water has such a high specific heat and covers so much of the surface of Earth, the seasonal high and low temperatures lag behind the seasonal peak of insolation by about a month. Water is absorbing or releasing its stored heat (latent heat) The highest temperatures of the summer occur in July/August even though the longest day is June 21. The coldest temperatures usually occur in January/February even though the shortest day is December 21. The same time delay occurs on a daily basis- While the angle of incidence is highest at noon, the hottest time of the day is usually late in the afternoon. The coolest part of the day is usually right around sunrise, and is after sunrise on many days. 6. Long term changes in climate These are a result of changes in the amount of insolation absorbed or emitted- called the heat budget. Earth's heat budget has shifted in the past. There have been periods of ice ages and warm periods. El Nino and la Nina-between every 2-10 years-not well understood by scientists. Global warming-some scientists believe it is caused by the massive burning of fossil fuels, others disagree. The role of sunspot activity and solar cycles effects on Earth's climate is also not well understood. The slight change of the tilt of Earth's axis (precession) and eccentricity of the elliptical orbit are additional factors not well understood. Volcanic eruptions also affect the amount of insolation received-ash clouds block sun from reaching the surface. 7. Color and texture – light colors reflect, dark colors absorb. Rough surfaces absorb, smooth surfaces reflect.

40 Topic 7-Weather Air mass- A large body of air in the troposphere with similar characteristics Air pressure gradient- The difference in air pressure over a given distance. Close isobars indicate high pressure gradient and windy conditions. Anemometer- An instrument used to measure wind speed. Atmospheric, barometric, or air pressure- The pressure of the air in a given location. Standard pressure of 1 atmosphere equals 1 bar, or 14.7 lbs. /sq. in. or 29.92” of mercury, or 33’ of water. Atmospheric transparency- How transparent the atmosphere is to insolation. Less transparent, due to high cloud cover or pollution, means more sunlight is reflected or absorbed, and less reaches the ground. Barometer- An instrument used to measure air pressure. Cloud cover- The fraction of the sky that is covered by clouds. Cold front- Boundary of an advancing cold air mass. The heavier, underlying cold air pushes forward like a wedge. Cyclone- Low pressure storms

41 Cyclonic storm- Low pressure storms in mid-latitudes, and Indian Ocean; also called hurricanes in the Atlantic, and typhoons in the Pacific. Dew point- The temperature at which relative humidity reaches 100%. Front- Where two air masses of different characteristics meet. Humidity- Amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. warm air can hold more vapor than cold air can. Isobar- Isolines of equal pressure are isobars. Jet stream- Bands of easterly moving air at the top of the troposphere blowing 200 MPH or more. Monsoons- Regular and severe weather changes caused by shifting winds. Occluded front- Boundary of opposing wedges of cold air masses formed when a cold front forces warm air up, off the ground.

42 Planetary wind belts- Winds moving in predominantly one direction
Planetary wind belts- Winds moving in predominantly one direction. They are due to winds blowing from high pressure to low pressure areas and the spin of the Earth (Coriolis Effect). Polar front- An ever changing boundary in mid-latitudes between cold air masses from the poles and warm air masses from the equator. Precipitation- The falling of liquid or solid water from clouds. Probability- Chance of occurrence of certain types of weather. These are predictions based on weather models, and past performance. Psychrometer- An instrument used to measure relative humidity. (A wet-bulb and dry-bulb thermometers and a table) Radar- Reflected electro-magnetic energy that is used to give a 3-dimensional view of weather. Acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging Relative humidity- The ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the maximum amount that could be dissolved in the air.

43 Stationary front- Two masses of air with different characteristics that remain in the same position.
Station model- Symbols and a circle used to indicate weather variables for a specific site. Troposphere- The part of the earth’s atmosphere directly above the surface. Most weather occurs in the troposphere. Visibility- How far you can see along Earth’s surface in miles. Warm front- Boundary of an advancing warm air mass. Because colder air is heavier, warm air is forced to rise as it advances. Water vapor- Gaseous water in the atmosphere. Weather variables- temperature, pressure, wind, moisture, cloud cover, precipitation, and storms.

44 Topic 8 -Water and Climate
Capillarity-The attractive force between water molecules that can oppose the force of gravity. Capillarity is greater when the tube diameter is smaller. Climate-The weather conditions at a location over a long period of time Ground water-The sub-surface water stored below the water table is ground water. 2/3 of all non-frozen freshwater on earth is ground water. Hydrologic cycle- See water cycle Infiltrate-As water slowly moves through open spaces in the ground it is said to infiltrate the ground Permeability- The ability of a material to allow fluids to pass through is its permeability. The permeability rate is the speed at which fluids can infiltrate the ground. Porosity- The amount of open space between particles of dirt and sediment is the porosity of the soil. Prevailing winds- The direction from which the wind usually blows at a given location Runoff-As precipitation flows over the surface of the earth back towards the oceans it is described as runoff.

45 Seep-The process of water infiltrating the ground
Sorted- Sediments are said to be sorted when they are close in size to one another. Stream discharge- The volume of water that a stream discharges over a given period of time is the stream discharge. Unsorted- When sediments are mixed sizes they are said to be unsorted. Usually from glacial deposition. Urbanization- The development of large areas, including road building, parking lots and buildings. Urbanization decreases infiltration and increases runoff. Water cycle- A model used to show the movement and phase changes of water at or near Earth’s surface. Water retention- Precipitation can be stored or retained on the land as ice or snow, or on the leaves of plants and trees Water table- The interface between the area of saturation and zone or aeration is the water table. Ground water is at and below the water table.

46 Topic 9 - Weathering and Erosion
Abrasion-Rocks scraping against other rocks primarily through glacial erosion produces abrasions. Abrasion has the effect or rounding sharp pieces of rock. Breaking wave-When a wave reaches shallow water it is unable to support its height and “breaks” in a forward rush of water. Chemical weathering-This occurs when carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide dissolve in water and then dissolve rocks. Plant roots may also secrete mild acids that contribute to chemical weathering. Delta-A delta is a depositional feature formed by deposition of sediments carried by a stream over a long period oft time. Erosion-The transportation of sediments through running water, glacial ice, wind, waves, and mass movements is the process of erosion. Erosion almost always moves particles to lower elevations, wind is the exception. Finger Lakes-These are long narrow lakes in U-shaped valleys, left behind as glaciers melt. They are usually dammed at one end with a pile of loose debris. Flood plain-During times of floods when a stream overflows its banks it may flow out onto a wider valley and deposit sediments in the flood plain.

47 Glacial groove-The gouges left behind by a glacier are glacial grooves.
Glacier-A naturally formed mass of ice which accumulates over long periods of time. Glaciers can form in mountains and move down a valley, (valley glacier) or cover entire continents (Greenland, Antarctica). These are continental glaciers. Mass movement- Rock slides, mud or debris flows, creep and slump are examples of mass movements. The primary force causing mass movements is gravity. Meander-A physical feature carved by a river. Meanders are snake like bends and curves in a river or stream. ` Physical weathering- Frost action, freeze-thaw cycles, plant root growth, and abrupt temperature changes can cause rocks to crack and breakdown into smaller pieces. Sandbar-In the zone of breaking waves, sediments deposited can form a barrier parallel to the shore called a sandbar. Sandblasting-This occurs when winds pick up sediments and blow them against rocks causing abrasion.

48 Sediments- Particles of rock which have been broken down into small pieces by the process of weathering. Stream-When running water is confined to a narrow channel a stream is formed. Stream channel shape- The shape of the bedrock or loose materials that confine a stream is the stream channel shape. Tributary- A smaller stream that joins a larger stream is a tributary. U-shaped valley-The shape of a valley carved by glaciers, the sides are cut away by the ice leaving the U shape. V-shaped valley-The shape of a valley carved by a stream or river is V-shaped because the stream cuts deeper over time. Watershed-The area of land drained by a stream or series of streams is a watershed. Weathering-The chemical and physical breakdown of rocks at or near Earth’s surface.

49 Topic 10-Deposition Barrier Island-An island created by the deposition of sand offshore, and held in place by growing vegetation. Deposition-The process by which sediments are released, settled from, or dropped by an erosional system. Drumlin-Streamlined, oval shaped moraines that look like an inverted spoon. Kettle Lake-A lake formed by the depression due to the weight of a glacier and the melting of the ice. Moraine-The unsorted sheets or piles deposited on the sides or at the end of a glacier. Outwash Plain- The running water that moves away from the terminus of a glacier may move out in a fan-shaped pattern that is called an outwash plain.

50 Sand dune-A large pile of sand deposited by wind
Sand dune-A large pile of sand deposited by wind. Sand dunes have a steep gradient on the windward side (side facing the wind), and a gradual slope on the leeward side (side facing away from the wind.) This feature of sand dunes can be used to determine the direction from which the wind blows. Sand dunes migrate as sand on the windward side is blown around to the leeward side. Sorted sediments-Sediments that are similar in size and shape, usually deposited by running water or wind. Unsorted sediments-Sediments that are very different in size and shape, usually the result of glacial deposition or mass movements.

51 Topic 11- Earth’s Materials
Bioclastic sedimentary rocks-Rocks that were formed from living organisms, such as shells forming calcium carbonate limestone rocks. Chemical sedimentary rocks-Rocks formed from the chemical precipitation of dissolved chemicals, usually salts. Clastic sedimentary rocks-Rocks that are largely composed of solid sediments such as sand in sandstone. Cleavage-The tendency of a rock to break along lines of weaker atomic bonds forming smooth planes, and specific angles is its cleavage. Contact metamorphism- The metamorphism that occurs when older rocks come into direct contact with hot magma. Crystal shape-The outward geometric shape of a mineral is determined by the crystal shape. Crystal structure-The specific arrangement of atoms in a material. Extrusive igneous rocks-Igneous rocks that form on the surface of the Earth- exposed to the atmosphere. Foliation-Large mineral crystals often in layers.

52 Fossil-Evidence of former life preserved in rock.
Fracture-If a material lacks specific lines of weaker atomic bonds, it will break with uneven surfaces. This is called fracture. Hardness-The resistance a rock offers to being scratched is its hardness. A rock that can scratch another is harder than the rock that was scratched. Igneous rocks- Rocks formed when liquid magma or lava cools and hardens. Inorganic-Not composed of anything that is or was alive. Intrusive igneous rocks-Igneous rocks that form beneath the Earth’s surface. Luster-The shine from an unpolished rock, or the way it reflects light is its luster Magma-Liquid rock beneath Earth’s surface- not exposed to the atmosphere. Metamorphic rocks-Rocks that have been changed under temperature and pressure from sedimentary or igneous rocks. Metamorphism-The process through heat and pressure of changing a rocks composition and mineral structure.

53 Mineral- A naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid, with a definite chemical composition
Mineral crystal-Individual grains of minerals. Mineral resources-Earth’s resources including minerals, rocks and fossil fuels. Organic-Refers to anything that is or was alive. Generally, organic materials are carbon based. Precipitation of minerals-The result of evaporation, saturation with dissolved minerals, or changes in temperature. Regional metamorphism-Metamorphism that occurs in a large area or region. Rock cycle- A model used to show the various stages of rocks from sedimentary to metamorphic or igneous. Sedimentary rocks-Rocks that form from an accumulation of sediments. Streak-The color of finely crushed residue or powder of the mineral Texture-The size, shape and arrangement of the materials in a rock are its texture.

54 Topic 12- Earth’s dynamic crust and Interior
Asthenosphere-A portion of the upper mantle just below the crust. This is a plastic layer that the plates move around on. Continental crust-Crust at the continents-thicker than oceanic crust. Primarily composed of less dense granite. Convergent plate boundary-A boundary where two plates move together in a head-on collision. These cause mountain building if both plates are continental, and subduction if one plate is oceanic. Crust-The top part of the lithosphere. Divergent plate boundary-A boundary where two plates are moving apart from one another. Earthquake-A natural, rapid vibration of the lithosphere. Usually caused by plate motions. Epicenter-The location on the surface of the land or water directly above the location where an earthquake originated.

55 Faulted-Rock layers that are offset from the position in which they formed. Faulting can be vertical or horizontal. Folded- Rock layers that are bent or tilted. Hot spot-A place where the crust is especially thin. There may be geothermal or volcanic activity associated with hot spots. Inner core-The central core of the earth, composed of solid iron and nickel. Island arc-A region of islands created by volcanoes from a hot spot. Lithosphere-The layer of rock that forms the outer layer of Earth’s shell at the top of Earth’s interior is the lithosphere. Mantle-The thickest part of earth’s interior, located below the lithosphere. The mantle contains 80% of earth’s volume and is separated from the crust by a layer called the Moho. Mid-ocean ridge-A region where plates diverge and new oceanic crust is formed. Moho-A thin layer that separates the crust from the mantle.

56 Oceanic crust-Thinner crust portions beneath the oceans; primarily composed of higher density basalt. Ocean trench-In regions of subduction, trenches are formed which are the deepest regions of earth’s oceans. Original horizontality- The concept that sediments and lava flows occur originally in horizontal layers. Outer core-The fluid portion of earth’s core, mostly liquid iron and nickel Plate tectonic theory-The theory that the plates move around at the surface of the Earth. P-waves-The primary earthquake wave. P-waves cause particle vibration in the direction the wave travels. (Longitudinal waves) Subduction-The process of a more dense plate sinking beneath a less dense plate. S-waves-Secondary waves cause particle vibration at right angles to the direction of wave propagation. (Transverse waves).

57 Seismic waves-The release of energy during an earthquake is recorded as a seismic wave.
Tectonic plates-Lithospheric plates, Plates, - sections of crust are divided into oceanic and continental plates. Transform plate boundary-The boundary between two plates that are sliding past each other. Tsunami-A wave generated by an earthquake. Tsunamis can be extremely large and cause extreme property damage and loss of life. Uplift-The force that lifts portions of the crust to higher elevation. Uplift is usually caused by a build up of magma below the surface or by plates colliding. Volcanic eruption-The release of gasses, steam, ash, pyroclasts, and molten rock (lava) is an eruption. Volcano-A mountain formed from extrusive igneous rocks. Young mountains-Created by convergent plates colliding and forcing the lithosphere to be uplifted.

58 Topic 13 - Interpreting Geologic History
Geologic age - the age of the Earth is so immense that its age is referred to as geologic time. If the age of the Earth was represented with a stack of paper sheets, and each sheet of paper represented 2000 years, the stack of paper would have to be about 750 feet high to represent the Earth. The geologic rock record is very much like a bunch of 1000 piece jigsaw puzzles. All over the world, at every location there is the same puzzle. The problem is, that no where is there a puzzle with all 1000 pieces in the box. Some puzzles are missing pieces and others are missing several hundred pieces. No complete puzzle can be completed, but because all the puzzles make the same picture, we can get an idea what is missing at our location by seeing another puzzle that is not missing those pieces. This process of filling in the missing pieces is called correlation. The pieces are missing due to erosion. It is erosion that removes puzzle pieces from the rock record. These missing sections are called unconformities. Absolute age-The absolute age of a rock in years, usually a range like million years. Determined with radioactive dating.

59 Carbon-14 dating- The process of using Carbon-14, an isotope of carbon, for absolute dating. The use depends on knowing the original amount of Carbon-14 present and the amount of the decay product. Correlation-Correlation is the process of showing that rocks from different places are the same or similar in age. This process fills in the missing pieces of the geologic rock record using among other techniques- index fossils. Extrusion-When igneous rock flows out onto the surface and solidifies, it forms an extrusion. Faults- a break between rock layers. Faults are always younger than the rocks they cut across. Fossil-The remains of former life, preserved as rocks. Almost all fossils are found in sedimentary rocks. Igneous and metamorphic rock processes destroy fossils. Geologic time scale-Divisions of the geologic time based on changing fossil evidence. The divisions are, from longest to shortest, eons, eras, periods, and epochs. Much of the information regarding these time units is in your reference tables.

60 Half-life-The time required for half of a radioactive sample to decay is its half-life. By knowing the half-life of an isotope and the fractions that are decayed and still radioactive, we can determine the age of a rock or artifact. Because we need a reasonable fraction to look at, this techniques works best when at least 1 half-life has gone by (not too much still radioactive) and no more than 6 half-life's have gone by (too much decayed). Inclusion- When a piece of older rock is encased in a younger rock, it is an inclusion. Inclusions form as magma pushes through older rock and is not hot enough to melt the older rock. It may completely surround the older rock forming an inclusion. Inclusions are always older than the rock that surrounds them. Index fossil-Index fossils are used in correlation. To be an index fossil, 2 conditions must be met. First, the fossil must have lived over a wide geographic area so that its remains have a large horizontal distribution. Second, the life form must have lived for a relatively short period of geologic time before it went extinct. If it lives for a long time period and can be found in many different rock layers it is not useful in correlating bedrock.

61 Intrusion- When magma squeezes into existing rocks and crystallizes underground it forms an intrusion. Intrusions are younger than any rock they cut through. Intrusions will cause contact metamorphism. If we see an intrusion covered by a rock layer that does not show contact metamorphism – we know that the rock layer formed after the intrusion. If we see contact metamorphism on the rock layer above the intrusion, it tells us that the rock layer was there when the intrusion occurred. Isotope-A variety of an element with a different number of protons than the most common variety of that element is an isotope. It must have the same number of protons- change the number of protons and you change elements. Organic evolution theory-The theory that life forms change over time. Outgassing- The process of gasses seeping out of Earth's interior. Principle of original horizontality – A fancy way to say that sedimentary rocks form in horizontal layers. If the rocks we are looking at are no longer flat, then the tilting or folding (tectonic forces) happened since they were formed. Principle of superposition- The idea that the bottom layer of a series of rock layers is the oldest, and that younger layers are on top of the older layers. New sedimentary rocks form on top of older sedimentary rocks.

62 Radioactive dating-The process of using the half life of a radioactive isotope and the ratio between the existing amount and the original amount to date rocks in an absolute manner. Radioactive decay-The process of an element’s nucleus breaking apart and releasing particles and energy is radioactive decay. This breaking apart is called fission. Radioactive decay fractions – These are the fractions geologists use to determine absolute age. There are always 2 fractions which will add up to the whole (1) The first is the fraction that is still radioactive (parents). This fraction is cut in half each time 1 half-life goes by. It always has a 1 for its numerator and its denominator continually doubles. The other is the fraction that has decayed (daughters). This fraction always has the same denominator as the corresponding parent, and its numerator is the denominator minus 1. Example: after 3 half life's- Parents equal ½ ¼ 1/8 daughters equal ½ ¾ 7/8 The 1/8 and the 7/8 add up to the whole (1) Parents approach 0 but will never reach it while daughters approach 100% without ever reaching it. Radioactive isotopes continue to decay forever! Nothing affects their decay- not temperature, pressure, size or age of the sample!

63 Unconformity- A buried, erosional surface of rock, in which older rock layers are missing from the geologic record. Without an atmosphere and weather a planet would not have any unconformities. Uranium-238- An important radioactive isotope of uranium which helps scientists to date rocks. Half-life and disintegration are on the front cover of the reference table. Volcanic ash- The dust and particles expelled by volcanoes during eruptions is volcanic ash. These serve as specific age markers in the glacial and geologic records. The glacial ice can be dated absolutely by examining the lines in ice cores. Every volcano emits a composition of dust and ash that is unique – like a volcanic fingerprint. These are extremely useful markers in the rock record that assist the correlation process. Impact events (asteroid collisions) produce the same effect.

64 Topic 14 - Landscape Development and Environmental Change
Escarpment-Cliffs that form where rocks of different hardness erode at different rates. Landscape- Landscape or topography are the features of the surface on top of the lithosphere. Landscape region- The characteristics of a region including bedrock structures, elevation, stream drainage patterns, and soil characteristics. Mountain- An area of high elevations compared to the surrounding area. Usually includes areas of steep gradients, and many changes in slope. Plain-Usually composed of sedimentary rock layers in a horizontal structure at lower elevations. Plateau-An area of high elevation with a horizontal structure. Ridges-Formed from more resistant rock layers, usually in long, narrow bands called ridges. Stream drainage pattern-The shape of a stream in an area as viewed from overhead. Uplifting forces-The forces that originate deep within the Earth. They include volcanoes, earthquakes and plate tectonic forces.

65 New York State Earth Science Core Curriculum and Performance Indicators
The core curriculum is based on 5 key ideas under Standard IV-Science. Performance indicators describe what New York State Earth Science students will know and understand after completing a course of study in the subject.

66 Learning Standards for Mathematics, Science, and Technology: Commencement Level.
Standard 1: Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. Standard 2: Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information using appropriate technologies. Standard 3: Students will understand mathematics and become mathematically confident by communicating and reasoning mathematically, by applying mathematics in real-world settings, and by solving problems through the integrated study of number systems, geometry, algebra, data analysis, probability, and trigonometry. Standard 4: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

67 Standard 5: Students will apply technological knowledge and skills to design, construct, use, and evaluate products and systems to satisfy human and environmental needs. Standard 6: Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning. Standard 7: Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address real-life problems and make informed decisions.

68 The 5 Key Ideas in Science – The Physical setting
1. The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective. Students: • explain complex phenomena, such as tides, variations in day length, solar insolation, apparent motion of the planets, and annual traverse of the constellations. • describe current theories about the origin of the universe and solar system. This is evident, for example, when students: create models, drawings, or demonstrations to explain changes in day length, solar insolation, and the apparent motion of planets.

69 2. Many of the phenomena we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land. Students: • use the concepts of density and heat energy to explain observations of weather patterns, seasonal changes, and the movements of the Earth’s plates. • explain how incoming solar radiations, ocean currents, and land masses affect weather and climate. This is evident, for example, when students: use diagrams of ocean currents at different latitudes to develop explanations for the patterns present.

70 3. Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity. Students: • explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them. • use atomic and molecular models to explain common chemical reactions. • apply the principle of conservation of mass to chemical reactions. • use kinetic molecular theory to explain rates of reactions and the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a substance.

71 This is evident, for example, when students:
use the atomic theory of elements to justify their choice of an element for use as a lighter than air gas for a launch vehicle. represent common chemical reactions using three-dimensional models of the molecules involved. discuss and explain a variety of everyday phenomena involving rates of chemical reactions, in terms of the kinetic molecular theory (e.g., use of refrigeration to keep food from spoiling, ripening of fruit in a bowl, use of kindling wood to start a fire, different types of flames that come from a Bunsen burner).

72 4. Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.
Students: • observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy. • explain heat in terms of kinetic molecular theory. • explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g., molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles. • explain the uses and hazards of radioactivity. This is evident, for example, when students: demonstrate through drawings, models, and diagrams how the potential energy that exists in the chemical bonds of fossil fuels can be converted to electrical energy in a power plant (potential energy, heat energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy). investigate the sources of radioactive emissions in their environment and the dangers and benefits they pose for humans.

73 5. Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.
Students: • explain and predict different patterns of motion of objects (e.g., linear and angular motion, velocity and acceleration, momentum and inertia). • explain chemical bonding in terms of the motion of electrons. • compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus. This is evident, for example, when students: construct drawings, models, and diagrams representing several different types of chemical bonds to demonstrate the basis of the bond, the strength of the bond, and the type of electrical attraction that exists.

74 Core Curriculum Performance Indicators
Explain complex phenomena, such as tides, variations in day length, solar insolation, apparent motion of the planets, and annual traverse of the constellations. 1.1a Most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, seasons, phases of the moon, eclipses, and tides. Gravity influences the motions of celestial objects. The force of gravity between two objects in the universe depends on their masses and the distance between them. 1.1b Nine planets move around the Sun in nearly circular orbits. The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun located at one of the foci.

75 Earth is orbited by one moon and many artificial satellites.
1.1c Earth’s coordinate system of latitude and longitude, with the equator and prime meridian as reference lines, is based upon Earth’s rotation and our observation of the Sun and stars. 1.1d Earth rotates on an imaginary axis at a rate of 15 degrees per hour. To people on Earth, this turning of the planet makes it seem as though the Sun, the moon, and the stars are moving around Earth once a day. Rotation provides a basis for our system of local time; meridians of longitude are the basis for time zones. 1.1e The Foucault pendulum and the Coriolis effect provide evidence of Earth’s rotation. 1.1f Earth’s changing position with regard to the Sun and the moon has noticeable effects. Earth revolves around the Sun with its rotational axis tilted at 23.5 degrees to a line perpendicular to the plane of its orbit, with the North Pole aligned with Polaris.

76 During Earth’s one-year period of revolution, the tilt of its axis results in changes in the angle of incidence of the Sun’s rays at a given latitude; these changes cause variation in the heating of the surface. This produces seasonal variation in weather. 1.1g Seasonal changes in the apparent positions of constellations provide evidence of Earth’s revolution. 1.1h The Sun’s apparent path through the sky varies with latitude and season. 1.1i Approximately 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered by a relatively thin layer of water, which responds to the gravitational attraction of the moon and the Sun with a daily cycle of high and low tides.

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR 1.2 Describe current theories about the origin of the universe and solar system. 1.2a The universe is vast and estimated to be over ten billion years old. The current theory is that the universe was created from an explosion called the Big Bang. Evidence for this theory includes: cosmic background radiation a red-shift (the Doppler effect) in the light from very distant galaxies. 1.2b Stars form when gravity causes clouds of molecules to contract until nuclear fusion of light elements into heavier ones occurs. Fusion releases great amounts of energy over millions of years. The stars differ from each other in size, temperature, and age. Our Sun is a medium-sized star within a spiral galaxy of stars known as the Milky Way. Our galaxy contains billions of stars, and the universe contains billions of such galaxies.

78 1.2c Our solar system formed about five billion years ago from a giant cloud of gas and debris. Gravity caused Earth and the other planets to become layered according to density differences in their materials. The characteristics of the planets of the solar system are affected by each planet’s location in relationship to the Sun. The terrestrial planets are small, rocky, and dense. The Jovian planets are large, gaseous, and of low density. 1.2d Asteroids, comets, and meteors are components of our solar system. Impact events have been correlated with mass extinction and global climatic change. Impact craters can be identified in Earth’s crust. 1.2e Earth’s early atmosphere formed as a result of the outgassing of water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and lesser amounts of other gases from its interior.

79 1.2f Earth’s oceans formed as a result of precipitation over millions of years. The presence of an early ocean is indicated by sedimentary rocks of marine origin, dating back about four billion years. 1.2g Earth has continuously been recycling water since the outgassing of water early in its history. This constant recirculation of water at and near Earth’s surface is described by the hydrologic (water) cycle. Water is returned from the atmosphere to Earth’s surface by precipitation. Water returns to the atmosphere by evaporation or transpiration from plants. A portion of the precipitation becomes runoff over the land or infiltrates into the ground to become stored in the soil or groundwater below the water table. Soil capillarity influences these processes. The amount of precipitation that seeps into the ground or runs off is influenced by climate, slope of the land, soil, rock type, vegetation, land use, and degree of saturation. Porosity, permeability, and water retention affect runoff and infiltration.

80 1.2h The evolution of life caused dramatic changes in the composition of Earth’s atmosphere. Free oxygen did not form in the atmosphere until oxygen-producing organisms evolved. 1.2i The pattern of evolution of life-forms on Earth is at least partially preserved in the rock record. Fossil evidence indicates that a wide variety of life-forms has existed in the past and that most of these forms have become extinct. Human existence has been very brief compared to the expanse of geologic time. 1.2j Geologic history can be reconstructed by observing sequences of rock types and fossils to correlate bedrock at various locations. The characteristics of rocks indicate the processes by which they formed and the environments in which these processes took place. Fossils preserved in rocks provide information about past environmental conditions.

81 Geologists have divided Earth history into time units based upon the fossil record.
Age relationships among bodies of rocks can be determined using principles of original horizontality, superposition, inclusions, cross-cutting relationships, contact metamorphism, and unconformities. The presence of volcanic ash layers, index fossils, and meteoritic debris can provide additional information. The regular rate of nuclear decay (half-life time period) of radioactive isotopes allows geologists to determine the absolute age of materials found in some rocks. Key Idea 2: Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land. Earth may be considered a huge machine driven by two engines, one internal and one external. These heat engines convert heat energy into mechanical energy.

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR 2.1 Use the concepts of density and heat energy to explain observations of weather patterns, seasonal changes, and the movements of Earth’s plates. 2.1a Earth systems have internal and external sources of energy, both of which create heat. 2.1b The transfer of heat energy within the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and Earth’s interior results in the formation of regions of different densities. These density differences result in motion. 2.1c Weather patterns become evident when weather variables are observed, measured, and recorded. These variables include air temperature, air pressure, moisture (relative humidity and dewpoint), precipitation (rain, snow, hail, sleet, etc.), wind speed and direction, and cloud cover. 2.1d Weather variables are measured using instruments such as thermometers, barometers, psychrometers, precipitation gauges, anemometers, and wind vanes.

83 2.1e Weather variables are interrelated.
For example: temperature and humidity affect air pressure and probability of precipitation air pressure gradient controls wind velocity 2.1f Air temperature, dewpoint, cloud formation, and precipitation are affected by the expansion and contraction of air due to vertical atmospheric movement. 2.1g Weather variables can be represented in a variety of formats including radar and satellite images, weather maps (including station models, isobars, and fronts), atmospheric cross-sections, and computer models. 2.1h Atmospheric moisture, temperature and pressure distributions; jet streams, wind; air masses and frontal boundaries; and the movement of cyclonic systems and associated tornadoes, thunderstorms, and hurricanes occur in observable patterns. Loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness.

84 2.1i Seasonal changes can be explained using concepts of density and heat energy. These changes include the shifting of global temperature zones, the shifting of planetary wind and ocean current patterns, the occurrence of monsoons, hurricanes, flooding, and severe weather. 2.1j Properties of Earth’s internal structure (crust, mantle, inner core, and outer core) can be inferred from the analysis of the behavior of seismic waves (including velocity and refraction). Analysis of seismic waves allows the determination of the location of earthquake epicenters, and the measurement of earthquake magnitude; this analysis leads to the inference that Earth’s interior is composed of layers that differ in composition and states of matter. 2.1k The outward transfer of Earth’s internal heat drives convective circulation in the mantle that moves the lithospheric plates comprising Earth’s surface.

85 2.1l The lithosphere consists of separate plates that ride on the more fluid asthenosphere and move slowly in relationship to one another, creating convergent, divergent, and transform plate boundaries. These motions indicate Earth is a dynamic geologic system. These plate boundaries are the sites of most earthquakes, volcanoes, and young mountain ranges. Compared to continental crust, ocean crust is thinner and denser. New ocean crust continues to form at mid-ocean ridges. Earthquakes and volcanoes present geologic hazards to humans. Loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness. 2.1m Many processes of the rock cycle are consequences of plate dynamics. These include the production of magma (and subsequent igneous rock formation and contact metamorphism) at both subduction and rifting regions, regional metamorphism within subduction zones, and the creation of major depositional basins through down-warping of the crust.

86 2.1n Many of Earth’s surface features such as mid-ocean ridges/rifts, trenches/subduction zones/island arcs, mountain ranges (folded, faulted, and volcanic), hot spots, and the magnetic and age patterns in surface bedrock are a consequence of forces associated with plate motion and interaction. 2.1o Plate motions have resulted in global changes in geography, climate, and the patterns of organic evolution. 2.1p Landforms are the result of the interaction of tectonic forces and the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition. 2.1q Topographic maps represent landforms through the use of contour lines that are isolines connecting points of equal elevation. Gradients and profiles can be determined from changes in elevation over a given distance.

87 2.1r Climate variations, structure, and characteristics of bedrock influence the development of landscape features including mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, ridges, escarpments, and stream drainage patterns. 2.1s Weathering is the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks at or near Earth’s surface. Soils are the result of weathering and biological activity over long periods of time. 2.1t Natural agents of erosion, generally driven by gravity, remove, transport, and deposit weathered rock particles. Each agent of erosion produces distinctive changes in the material that it transports and creates characteristic surface features and landscapes. In certain erosional situations, loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness.

88 2.1u The natural agents of erosion include:
Streams (running water): Gradient, discharge, and channel shape influence a stream’s velocity and the erosion and deposition of sediments. Sediments transported by streams tend to become rounded as a result of abrasion. Stream features include V-shaped valleys, deltas, flood plains, and meanders. A watershed is the area drained by a stream and its tributaries. Glaciers (moving ice): Glacial erosional processes include the formation of U-shaped valleys, parallel scratches, and grooves in bedrock. Glacial features include moraines, drumlins, kettle lakes, finger lakes, and outwash plains. Wave Action: Erosion and deposition cause changes in shoreline features, including beaches, sandbars, and barrier islands. Wave action rounds sediments as a result of abrasion. Waves approaching a shoreline move sand parallel to the shore within the zone of breaking waves. Wind: Erosion of sediments by wind is most common in arid climates and along shorelines. Wind-generated features include dunes and sand-blasted bedrock. Mass Movement: Earth materials move downslope under the influence of gravity.

2.1v Patterns of deposition result from a loss of energy within the transporting system and are influenced by the size, shape, and density of the transported particles. Sediment deposits may be sorted or unsorted. 2.1w Sediments of inorganic and organic origin often accumulate in depositional environments. Sedimentary rocks form when sediments are compacted and/or cemented after burial or as the result of chemical precipitation from seawater. PERFORMANCE INDICATOR 2.2 Explain how incoming solar radiation, ocean currents, and land masses affect weather and climate. 2.2a Insolation (solar radiation) heats Earth’s surface and atmosphere unequally due to variations in: the intensity caused by differences in atmospheric transparency and angle of incidence which vary with time of day, latitude, and season.

90 2.2d Temperature and precipitation patterns are altered by:
2.2a continued characteristics of the materials absorbing the energy such as color, texture, transparency, state of matter, and specific heat duration, which varies with seasons and latitude. 2.2b The transfer of heat energy within the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and Earth’s surface occurs as the result of radiation, convection, and conduction. Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the Sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents. 2.2c A location’s climate is influenced by latitude, proximity to large bodies of water, ocean currents, prevailing winds, vegetative cover, elevation, and mountain ranges. 2.2d Temperature and precipitation patterns are altered by: natural events such as El Nino and volcanic eruptions human influences including deforestation, urbanization, and the production of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane.

Key Idea 3: Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity PERFORMANCE INDICATOR 3.1 Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them. 3.1a Minerals have physical properties determined by their chemical composition and crystal structure. Minerals can be identified by well-defined physical and chemical properties, such as cleavage, fracture, color, density, hardness, streak, luster, crystal shape, and reaction with acid. Chemical composition and physical properties determine how minerals are used by humans.

92 3.1b Minerals are formed inorganically by the process of crystallization as a result of specific environmental conditions. These include: cooling and solidification of magma precipitation from water caused by such processes as evaporation, chemical reactions, and temperature changes rearrangement of atoms in existing minerals subjected to conditions of high temperature and pressure. 3.1c Rocks are usually composed of one or more minerals. Rocks are classified by their origin, mineral content, and texture. Conditions that existed when a rock formed can be inferred from the rock’s mineral content and texture. The properties of rocks determine how they are used and also influence land usage by humans.

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