5 Density Must (Pass) Should (Merit) Could (Distinction) Be able to calculate density from given values.Be able to suggest the order of liquids in a density ladder.Be able to explain a density ladder.Be able to calculate the density of regular objects by experimental means.Be able to manipulate and use the density triangle.Be able to calculate the density of irregular objects by experimental means.
6 lecturePLUS Timberlake DensityDensity compares the mass of an object to its volumeD = mass = g or gvolume mL cm3Note: 1 mL = 1 cm3lecturePLUS Timberlake
7 Density is the Mass per unit Volume What is Density?If you take the same volume of different substances, then they will weigh different amounts.WoodWaterIron1 cm31 cm31 cm3IRON0.50 g1.00 g8.00 gQ) Which has the greatest mass and therefore the most dense?Density is the Mass per unit Volume
8 Density Equation: = m V m V g or kg Mass Density = Volume gcm-3 or kgm-3cm3 or kg3= mV
9 Density Equation: Example: Q) Liquid water has a density of 1000kgm-3, while ice has density of 920kgm-3.Calculate the volume occupied by 0.25kg of each.V = m = 0.25 = m3V = m = 0.25 = m3
10 lecturePLUS Timberlake Learning Check D1Osmium is a very dense metal. What is itsdensity in g/cm3 if g of the metal occupiesa volume of 2.22cm3?1) g/cm32) 22.5 g/cm33) 111 g/cm3lecturePLUS Timberlake
11 lecturePLUS Timberlake Solution2) Placing the mass and volume of the osmium metal into the density setup, we obtainD = mass = g =volume 2.22 cm3= g/cm3 = g/cm3lecturePLUS Timberlake
12 Volume DisplacementA solid displaces a matching volume of water when the solid is placed in water.33 mL25 mL
13 lecturePLUS Timberlake Learning CheckWhat is the density (g/cm3) of 48 g of a metal if the metal raises the level of water in a graduated cylinder from 25 mL to 33 mL?1) 0.2 g/ cm ) 6 g/m ) g/cm333 mL25 mLlecturePLUS Timberlake
14 lecturePLUS Timberlake Solution2) 6 g/cm3Volume (mL) of water displaced= mL mL = mLVolume of metal (cm3)= 8 mL x 1 cm3 = cm31 mLDensity of metal =mass = 48 g = 6 g/cm3volume cm3lecturePLUS Timberlake
15 Learning Check3Which diagram represents the liquid layers in the cylinder?(K) Karo syrup (1.4 g/mL), (V) vegetable oil (0.91 g/mL,) (W) water (1.0 g/mL)1) ) )KVWKVWWVK
16 Solution(K) Karo syrup (1.4 g/mL), (V) vegetable oil (0.91 g/mL,) (W) water (1.0 g/mL)1)VWK
17 DENSITY OF A REGULAR SOLID Find the Mass of the solid on a balance.Measure the three lengths and calculate the Volume.(ie V = l x w x h )Calculate the Density.m = 240 g2.0 cm = m = 240 =10.0 g/cm3V3.0 cm4.0 cm
18 DENSITY OF AN IRREGULAR SOLID m = 360 g = m = 360 =12.0 g/cm3VFind the Mass of the solid on a balance.Fill the Measuring Cylinder with Water to a known Volume.Add the Object.Work out the Volume of Water that is displaced.Calculate the Density.80 cm350 cm3
19 DENSITY OF AN IRREGULAR SOLID OR use a Eureka Can to find the Volume.Find the mass of the solid on a balance.Add water until just overflowing.Place a Measuring Cylinder under the spout.Add the Object.Collect the Water and read off the Volume.Calculate Densitym = 440 g40.0 cm3 = m = 440 =11.0 g/cm3V
20 Learning CheckYou have 3 metal samples. Which one will displace the greatest volume of water?Discuss your choice with another student.25 g Al2.70 g/mL45 g of gold19.3 g/mL75 g of Lead11.3 g/mL
22 Pre-Lab How do you correctly read a graduated cylinder? What techniques can you use to measure the volume of an irregularly shaped object? What tips should you remember?How do you take the slope of a line?How is percentage error defined?Name the two general types of mathematical relationships between variables to be investigated in this labWhat safety precautions must be taken for this lab
24 ProcedureChoose equipment to make and record all measurements as accurately and precisely as possible. Be sure to record the correct number of digits for your data.Obtain 2 rock samplesMake sure the samples are dry and clean. Obtain their masses. Remember the uncertaintyMeasure the volume of the rock using the volume displacement method
25 4. Repeat method 2 and 3 and obtain an average 5. Calculate the volume of the rock.Repeat for the second sample.
26 Results Data table and calculations Sample 1 Trial 1 Trial 2 Average Initial Vol (ml)Final Vol(ml)Calculated volume (ml)Mass (g)Sample 1Trial 1Trial 2AverageSample 2Trail 1Trail 2
27 More CalculationsMake a single table using mass and volume, density for all samples. Display the formula and show all working. Ensure all units are correctly displayed.Obtain the class data for each group for each sort of rock sample and make another table, showing mass, volume, as well as the computation of mass x volume and mass/volume. Use the appropriate units.
28 Your graph will show a scatter of points, draw a line of best fit. Look at the data/calculations table, which is constant; mass x volume OR mass/vol ?What type of relationship was found in this lab? Hint: If A/B is constant, then there is a direct relationship. If AxB is constant then there is an inverse relationship.Using the above data, explain what the gradient of the line represents?
29 Calculate the gradient of the line Calculate the gradient of the line. You can choose any two points on a line to calculate slope, but it is best to choose them far apart.Accurately calculate your gradient. Write your final slope as a decimal, to two decimal places. Don’t forget units!!
30 Discussion: Answer the following questions. 1. Compare your calculated gradient from the class results to your calculated density from your own results. What is the error margin?Should a density graph go through the point (0,0)? Why or why not?Would you get the same values of slope if you just counted the number of grid lines in the rise and run (ignoring the scales on your graph)? Give one example.
31 Why must the samples be clean and dry to start? If I randomly picked two pure solid substances in the room, is it likely that they would have the same density? If I could take any size piece of either, could I make them have the same density? Comment on your answers.If you were given another rock sample, would you rather know its mass or its density if you wanted to find out what kind of rock it is. Explain.
32 Would the presence of an air bubble stuck on the submerged rock tend to make the density too high or too low? Explain.Discuss any experimental errors that could of lead to the inaccuracies in this lab.What improvements could you put in place to increase the accuracy of your results.Conclusion:
33 Lab Report Due:When you hand in your full lab report, make sure the pre-lab is on the top. For this lab make sure your graph is the last page of the report.Due Date: Wednesday Sept 19th.All questions will be on the PowerPoint on teacherweb.