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By Jennifer Turley and Joan Thompson © 2016 Cengage

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1 By Jennifer Turley and Joan Thompson © 2016 Cengage
Carbohydrates By Jennifer Turley and Joan Thompson © 2016 Cengage

2 An Introduction to Carbohydrates: Presentation Overview
Composition Energy Yield Categories Food Source Dietary Recommendations Alcohol

3 Carbohydrates (Carbs or CHO)
Composition: Carbohydrate is made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Organic Compound: Carbohydrate is organic because it contains carbon. It is a compound because it has more than one element in its structure. The ratio of Carbohydrate is CxH2x0x. 1 C6H O2 <=> 6C02 + 6H2O

4 Carbohydrates: Energy Yield
Provides 4 Calories/gram. It is the most preferred fuel for the body. It is high performance fuel. It produces ATP at the fastest rate.

5 Categories of Carbohydrates
Simple versus Complex

6 Simple Sugars:

7 Monosaccharides α-D-Glucose β-D-Fructose β-D-Galactose

8 Disaccharides α-Sucrose α-Maltose β -Lactose

9 Common Names of Sugars Glucose is blood sugar Fructose is fruit sugar
Sucrose is table sugar Lactose is milk sugar Maltose is malt sugar

10 Complex Carbohydrates, Part 1
Polysaccharides: Starch (digestible & caloric) Alpha linked glucose molecules in starch can be broken apart by the enzyme alpha-amylase to produce energy. The glucose units that are released are absorbed into the blood stream.

11 Complex Carbohydrates, Part 2
Polysaccharides: Fiber (indigestible & noncaloric) Beta linked glucose molecules cannot be broken apart by human enzymes so no energy is produced. The glucose units are not released and thus fiber is not absorbed. Cellulose is the most common type of fiber.

12 Polysaccharides

13 Food Sources of Carbohydrates
Grains, Cereals, & Legumes: Pasta, bread, cold/hot cereal, rice, oats, kidney beans, etc. Fruits & Vegetables Starchy Vegetables: Corn, potato, peas, acorn squash, etc.

14 Plant Sources of Carbohydrates
Simple carbohydrates: Fruit, table sugar, sweets & sugar sweetened cereals. Complex carbohydrates: Vegetables, starchy vegetables, grains, legumes, & whole grain cereals.

15 Animal Food Sources of Carbohydrates
Milk (& milk products yogurt & cheese) contain lactose. Honey contains glucose, fructose & small amounts of other sugars. Animal foods usually provide mostly proteins & fats. Milk & milk products also provide proteins & varying amounts of fats.

16 How much carbohydrate do you need?
The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) is: 45-65% of Calories from carbohydrates ≤ 25% of Calories from sugars

17 How much fiber do you need?
The dietary recommendation for fiber is 1.4 gram per 100 Calories consumed

18 Alcohol: Carbohydrate like & Drug
Alcohol: CH3CH2OH Provides 7 Calories/gram. Is a carbohydrate related substance. Lacks nutritional value. Is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. Is considered a drug. Is commonly ingested. One serving per day may reduce heart disease risk but increase cancer risk.

19 Some Summary Points Organic compounds categorized as: simple & complex. They provide 4 Calories/gram; except fiber is non-caloric. They are the preferred fuel of the body. Consume 45-65% of Calories from digestible carbohydrates; ≤ 25% Calories from added sugars; 1.4 grams fiber per 100 Calories consumed. Found in plant foods, except animal sources of milk & honey. Alcohol is a carbohydrate-like drug providing 7 Calories/gram References for this presentation are the same as those for this topic found in module 1 of the textbook

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