3 The Aztecs Build an Empire First Aztecs were farmers from Northern MexicoMigrated south in the 1100s but all of the good farmland was takenTo survive, the Aztecs hired themselves out as skilled fighters
4 War, Tribute, & Trade Aztec Warriors conquered many towns Also, made alliances or partnerships with other tribesIn the 1420s, formed a secret alliance with two other cities on Lake Texcoco and defeated the other towns around the lake
5 War, Tribute, & TradeThe Aztecs made people they conquered pay tribute: a payment to a more powerful ruler or countryHad to pay for goods such as cotton, gold, or food.Controlled a huge trade networkMost towns had a market where local farmers and artisans brought their goods to trade.
6 Tenochtitlan The Aztec capital city Located on an island in the middle of Lake TexcocoBuilt three causeways: raised roads across water or wet ground, to connect the island to the shore.Made of rocks covered in dirt.Although surrounded by water, the water was undrinkableThe Aztecs built a stone aqueduct to bring fresh water to the city.Tenochtitlan
7 Tenochtitlan Limited land available for farming Built “floating gardens” called chinampas.Made by putting soil on rafts anchored to trees in the water.Became the greatest city in the AmericasHad huge temples, a busy market, clean streets, and a magnificent palace.At its height, Tenochtitlan had 200,000 people.Tenochtitlan
8 Cortes Conquers the Aztecs Conquistadors: Spanish explores who arrived in the Americas in the late 1400s in search of new lands, gold, and to spread their Catholic religion.Hernan Cortes: Conquistador who reached Mexico in 1519 looking for gold.Moctezuma II: believed Cortes was the Aztec god, Quetzalcoatl, who was supposed to return to Mexico in 1519.Cortes Conquers the Aztecs
9 Cortes Conquers the Aztecs Moctezuma sent Cortes gifts, including gold.Cortes marched on Tenochtitlan and captured Moctezuma and the city.The Aztecs attacked and drove the Spanish out.Moctezuma was killed.Cortes came back in 1521 with many Indian allies and conquered TenochtitlanCortes Conquers the Aztecs
10 Causes of the Defeat of the Aztecs AlliancesThe Spanish forces made allies with tribes who did not like the AztecsMalintzin: Malinche, guide and interpreter for Cortes.
11 Causes of the Defeat of the Aztecs Better WeaponsGuns, armor, and horsesGeographyBlocked Tenochtitlan’s causeways, bridges, and waterways.Cut off drinking water and supplies.Thousands of Aztecs died from starvation.
12 Causes of the Defeat of the Aztecs DiseaseSpanish had brought diseases such as smallpox to the AmericasThese were new diseases to the Aztecs and swept through Aztec communities, killing thousands.
13 Why were neighboring tribes willing to fight with the Spaniards against the Aztecs? How did the Spaniards use the local geography to defeat the city?Do you think Moctezuma was too trusting of Cortes and his men? Explain your answer.Bell Work 9/21/12
14 Bell Work AnswersThey did not like losing battles and paying tribute to the Aztecs.The Spaniards blocked causeways, bridges, and waterways; cut off drinking water and other supplies.Possible Answer—If Moctezuma had been less trusting, the empire would have been less vulnerable.
16 Aztec Society Aztec people had clearly defined roles Aztec society organized into groups called calpullis: a community of families that shared land, schools, a temple, and an elected leader.
17 Kings & Nobles King was the most important person in Aztec society Lived in a palace that had gardens, a zoo, and an aviary.Some 3,000 servants attended his every needWas in charge of law, trade and tribute, warfareKings & Nobles
18 Aztec Nobles, such as tax collectors and judges, helped manage for the king. Noble positions were passed down from fathers to their sons.Young nobles went to schools to learn the responsibilities they would face as government officials, military leaders, or priests.Kings & Nobles
19 Priests & Warriors Priests had a great influence over Aztecs’ lives. Kept calendars and decided when to plant crops or perform ceremonies.Passed down Aztec history and storiesPerformed various religious ceremonies, including human sacrifice.Priests & Warriors
20 Priests & WarriorsAztec Warriors fought to capture victims for religious sacrifices.Respected for the wealth they brought to the empire
21 Merchants & ArtisansMerchants gathered goods from all over Mesoamerica and sold them in the main marketBecame very richBuilt large, impressive houses and sent their sons to special schoolsArtisans were also rich and importantMade goods like feather headdresses and gold jewelry.
22 Farmers & Slaves The lower class of Aztec society Most people were farmers who grew corn, beans, and other cropsDid not own their land and were very poor.Had to pay so much in tribute that they often found it tough to survive.Slaves had been captured in battle or couldn’t pay their debts.Sold as laborers to nobles or merchants.Farmers & Slaves
23 Person who performed the Job Aztec Life & SocietyJob or TaskPerson who performed the JobRuled the Empire and lived in luxuryKingsNoblesServed as important officials, such as tax collectors and judges.Performed many important duties, such as keeping calendars.PriestsFought to conquer other peoples and capture victims for sacrifice.WarriorsMerchantsTraded goods like food, clothing, and tools.Skilled workers who made a wide variety of goods that people needed.ArtisansMost Aztecs, who lived in simple huts.FarmersPrisoners of war, who were forced to work or were sacrificed.Slaves
24 Aztec Religion Believed gods ruled all parts of life Believed sacrifices were necessary to keep the gods strong and the world safe.Sacrifices would be performed on warriors captured in battle.Aztec priests sacrificed as many as 10,000 victims a year in religious ceremonies10,000 victims/365 days in a year = about 27 people a day!!!
25 Science, Art, & LanguageTook many of their achievements from the people they conquered.Created a calendar much like the Maya one.Workers built bridges and lined canals with stoneUsed gold and feather to make jewelryMade books, or codex, made of barks or animal skins, used to keep records.
27 The Rise of the Inca Empire Around 900 BC, complex civilizations began to develop in what is now Peru (the Chavin, the Nazca, the Moche and the Chimu)Advancements in farming such as terraces and irrigation.The Rise of the Inca Empire
28 The Early Incas Capital city was Cuzco Ruler Pachacuti led the Incas to expand their territory through agreements with other tribes and conquest.By the early 1500s, the Inca Empire was huge, it stretched from what is now northern Ecuador to central Chile and included coastal deserts, snowy mountains, fertile valleys, and thick forests.Around 12 million people lived in the Inca Empire.The Early Incas
29 Central Government and Language Made the leaders of conquered areas move out of their villages.Then they brought in new leaders who were loyal to the Inca government.Also made the children of conquered leaders travel to the capital to learn about Inca government and religion.After a while, the children went back to rule their villages, where they taught people the Inca way of life.Central Government and Language
30 Central Government and Language Established an official language: QuechuaNo written language, but kept records with cords called quipus.Knots in the cords represented numbers, different colors stood for information about crops, land, and other important topics.
31 Incas had to “pay” their government in labor instead of taxes. Mita Most Incas were farmers who grew corn, peanuts, and potatoes and raised llamas for meat and wool.Farmers worked on government-owned farms in addition to their own farms.Villages produced cloth and grain for the army.Others worked in mines, served in the army, or built roads to pay their labor tax.Economy
32 EconomyThere were no merchants or markets in the Inca EmpireInstead, government officials would distribute goods collected through mita..
33 Pizarro Conquers the Incas A civil war began in the Inca Empire around 1530The Inca ruler died and his two sons, Atahualpa and Huascar fought to become the new ruler.Atahualpa won the war, but fierce fighting had weakened the Inca armyPizarro Conquers the Incas
34 Pizarro Conquers the Incas On his way to be crowned, Atahualpa heard that the Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro had arrived.Atahualpa agreed to meet PizarroAt the meeting, the Spanish told Pizarro to convert to Christianity, he refused and they attacked.Atahualpa was captured and thousands of Inca soldiers were killed.
35 To win his freedom, Atahualpa asked his people to fill a room with gold and silver for Pizarro. The people rushed to bring jewelry, statues, and other objects, melted down; the precious metals may have totaled 24 tons!!However, the Spanish killed Atahualpa anyway.In 1537, the Spanish defeated the last of the Incas and gained control over the entire region.Spanish Control
36 Spanish Control Fall of the Inca similar to fall of the Aztecs Both had internal problems when the Spanish arrivedCortes and Pizarro captured the leaders of the each empireGuns and horses gave the Spanish a great military advantageDisease weakened native peoples.Spanish Control
37 Why do you think farmers created terraces in the mountains? Who was the Inca ruler when Pizarro arrived in the empire?Why do you think the Spaniards attacked when Atahualpa would not convert to Christianity?Bell Work 9/27/12
38 When did the Spaniards defeat the last of the Inca? How were the conquests of the Inca and Aztec Empires similar?Bell Work 9/28/12
40 Society & Daily Life Two Classes Incas from Cuzco = Upper Class Conquered peoples = Lower ClassSociety & Daily Life
41 Daily Life for the Upper Class The King, priests, and government officials made up the Inca Upper Class.Sons of upper class families went to school in Cuzco.They studied Quechua, religion, history, and law to prepare for their lives as government or religious officials.Daily Life for the Upper Class
42 Daily Life for the Upper Class Lived in stone houses and wore the best clothes.They didn’t have to pay the labor tax, and often had servantsDaily Life for the Upper Class
43 Daily Life of the Lower Class Most Incas were farmers, artisans, or servants.There were no slaves in Inca societyFarmed on government lands, served in the army, worked in mines, and built roads.Most children did not go to school, but some young girls did go to school to learn weaving, cooking, and religion.Lived outside of Cuzco in small houses.By law, they had to wear plain clothes, also, they couldn’t own more goods then they needed.Daily Life of the Lower Class
44 Had an official religion which was taught to all conquered peoples. But the people could still worship their own gods too.The sun god was the most important in the Inca religion.Kings were believed to be related to the sun god.Religion
45 Religion Priests brought mummies of former kings to many ceremonies. People gave these mummies food and gifts.- Ceremonies often included sacrifice, but not humans, usually llamas, cloth, or food.Religion
46 Building, Art, and Oral Literature Massive buildings and forts made of huge, stone blocks.Workers cut the blocks so precisely that they didn’t have to use cement to hold them together.Even today, nearly impossible to fit a knife blade between the stones.Also, built a system of very good roadsHad two major highways that ran the length of the empireBuilding, Art, and Oral Literature
47 Made gold and silver jewelry Best textiles in the AmericasArt
48 Oral Literature No written records All stories passed down orally through stories and songs.Oral Literature
49 Take out a pencil or pen, binder paper, and your progress reports Put everything else away and wait for instruction from Mr. Baptista.Bell Work 10/1/12
50 Take out any progress reports not turned in yet. Wait to be told when to begin your projects by Mr. BaptistaBell Work 10/2/12