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The Aztec and Inca Empires

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1 The Aztec and Inca Empires
Chapter 15

2 The Aztec Empire Section 1

3 The Aztecs Build an Empire
First Aztecs were farmers from Northern Mexico Migrated south in the 1100s but all of the good farmland was taken To survive, the Aztecs hired themselves out as skilled fighters

4 War, Tribute, & Trade Aztec Warriors conquered many towns
Also, made alliances or partnerships with other tribes In the 1420s, formed a secret alliance with two other cities on Lake Texcoco and defeated the other towns around the lake

5 War, Tribute, & Trade The Aztecs made people they conquered pay tribute: a payment to a more powerful ruler or country Had to pay for goods such as cotton, gold, or food. Controlled a huge trade network Most towns had a market where local farmers and artisans brought their goods to trade.

6 Tenochtitlan The Aztec capital city
Located on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco Built three causeways: raised roads across water or wet ground, to connect the island to the shore. Made of rocks covered in dirt. Although surrounded by water, the water was undrinkable The Aztecs built a stone aqueduct to bring fresh water to the city. Tenochtitlan

7 Tenochtitlan Limited land available for farming
Built “floating gardens” called chinampas. Made by putting soil on rafts anchored to trees in the water. Became the greatest city in the Americas Had huge temples, a busy market, clean streets, and a magnificent palace. At its height, Tenochtitlan had 200,000 people. Tenochtitlan

8 Cortes Conquers the Aztecs
Conquistadors: Spanish explores who arrived in the Americas in the late 1400s in search of new lands, gold, and to spread their Catholic religion. Hernan Cortes: Conquistador who reached Mexico in 1519 looking for gold. Moctezuma II: believed Cortes was the Aztec god, Quetzalcoatl, who was supposed to return to Mexico in 1519. Cortes Conquers the Aztecs

9 Cortes Conquers the Aztecs
Moctezuma sent Cortes gifts, including gold. Cortes marched on Tenochtitlan and captured Moctezuma and the city. The Aztecs attacked and drove the Spanish out. Moctezuma was killed. Cortes came back in 1521 with many Indian allies and conquered Tenochtitlan Cortes Conquers the Aztecs

10 Causes of the Defeat of the Aztecs
Alliances The Spanish forces made allies with tribes who did not like the Aztecs Malintzin: Malinche, guide and interpreter for Cortes.

11 Causes of the Defeat of the Aztecs
Better Weapons Guns, armor, and horses Geography Blocked Tenochtitlan’s causeways, bridges, and waterways. Cut off drinking water and supplies. Thousands of Aztecs died from starvation.

12 Causes of the Defeat of the Aztecs
Disease Spanish had brought diseases such as smallpox to the Americas These were new diseases to the Aztecs and swept through Aztec communities, killing thousands.

13 Why were neighboring tribes willing to fight with the Spaniards against the Aztecs?
How did the Spaniards use the local geography to defeat the city? Do you think Moctezuma was too trusting of Cortes and his men? Explain your answer. Bell Work 9/21/12

14 Bell Work Answers They did not like losing battles and paying tribute to the Aztecs. The Spaniards blocked causeways, bridges, and waterways; cut off drinking water and other supplies. Possible Answer—If Moctezuma had been less trusting, the empire would have been less vulnerable.

15 Aztec Life & Society Section 2

16 Aztec Society Aztec people had clearly defined roles
Aztec society organized into groups called calpullis: a community of families that shared land, schools, a temple, and an elected leader.

17 Kings & Nobles King was the most important person in Aztec society
Lived in a palace that had gardens, a zoo, and an aviary. Some 3,000 servants attended his every need Was in charge of law, trade and tribute, warfare Kings & Nobles

18 Aztec Nobles, such as tax collectors and judges, helped manage for the king.
Noble positions were passed down from fathers to their sons. Young nobles went to schools to learn the responsibilities they would face as government officials, military leaders, or priests. Kings & Nobles

19 Priests & Warriors Priests had a great influence over Aztecs’ lives.
Kept calendars and decided when to plant crops or perform ceremonies. Passed down Aztec history and stories Performed various religious ceremonies, including human sacrifice. Priests & Warriors

20 Priests & Warriors Aztec Warriors fought to capture victims for religious sacrifices. Respected for the wealth they brought to the empire

21 Merchants & Artisans Merchants gathered goods from all over Mesoamerica and sold them in the main market Became very rich Built large, impressive houses and sent their sons to special schools Artisans were also rich and important Made goods like feather headdresses and gold jewelry.

22 Farmers & Slaves The lower class of Aztec society
Most people were farmers who grew corn, beans, and other crops Did not own their land and were very poor. Had to pay so much in tribute that they often found it tough to survive. Slaves had been captured in battle or couldn’t pay their debts. Sold as laborers to nobles or merchants. Farmers & Slaves

23 Person who performed the Job
Aztec Life & Society Job or Task Person who performed the Job Ruled the Empire and lived in luxury Kings Nobles Served as important officials, such as tax collectors and judges. Performed many important duties, such as keeping calendars. Priests Fought to conquer other peoples and capture victims for sacrifice. Warriors Merchants Traded goods like food, clothing, and tools. Skilled workers who made a wide variety of goods that people needed. Artisans Most Aztecs, who lived in simple huts. Farmers Prisoners of war, who were forced to work or were sacrificed. Slaves

24 Aztec Religion Believed gods ruled all parts of life
Believed sacrifices were necessary to keep the gods strong and the world safe. Sacrifices would be performed on warriors captured in battle. Aztec priests sacrificed as many as 10,000 victims a year in religious ceremonies 10,000 victims/365 days in a year = about 27 people a day!!!

25 Science, Art, & Language Took many of their achievements from the people they conquered. Created a calendar much like the Maya one. Workers built bridges and lined canals with stone Used gold and feather to make jewelry Made books, or codex, made of barks or animal skins, used to keep records.

26 The Inca Empire Chapter 15 Section 3

27 The Rise of the Inca Empire
Around 900 BC, complex civilizations began to develop in what is now Peru (the Chavin, the Nazca, the Moche and the Chimu) Advancements in farming such as terraces and irrigation. The Rise of the Inca Empire

28 The Early Incas Capital city was Cuzco
Ruler Pachacuti led the Incas to expand their territory through agreements with other tribes and conquest. By the early 1500s, the Inca Empire was huge, it stretched from what is now northern Ecuador to central Chile and included coastal deserts, snowy mountains, fertile valleys, and thick forests. Around 12 million people lived in the Inca Empire. The Early Incas

29 Central Government and Language
Made the leaders of conquered areas move out of their villages. Then they brought in new leaders who were loyal to the Inca government. Also made the children of conquered leaders travel to the capital to learn about Inca government and religion. After a while, the children went back to rule their villages, where they taught people the Inca way of life. Central Government and Language

30 Central Government and Language
Established an official language: Quechua No written language, but kept records with cords called quipus. Knots in the cords represented numbers, different colors stood for information about crops, land, and other important topics.

31 Incas had to “pay” their government in labor instead of taxes. Mita
Most Incas were farmers who grew corn, peanuts, and potatoes and raised llamas for meat and wool. Farmers worked on government-owned farms in addition to their own farms. Villages produced cloth and grain for the army. Others worked in mines, served in the army, or built roads to pay their labor tax. Economy

32 Economy There were no merchants or markets in the Inca Empire Instead, government officials would distribute goods collected through mita..

33 Pizarro Conquers the Incas
A civil war began in the Inca Empire around 1530 The Inca ruler died and his two sons, Atahualpa and Huascar fought to become the new ruler. Atahualpa won the war, but fierce fighting had weakened the Inca army Pizarro Conquers the Incas

34 Pizarro Conquers the Incas
On his way to be crowned, Atahualpa heard that the Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro had arrived. Atahualpa agreed to meet Pizarro At the meeting, the Spanish told Pizarro to convert to Christianity, he refused and they attacked. Atahualpa was captured and thousands of Inca soldiers were killed.

35 To win his freedom, Atahualpa asked his people to fill a room with gold and silver for Pizarro.
The people rushed to bring jewelry, statues, and other objects, melted down; the precious metals may have totaled 24 tons!! However, the Spanish killed Atahualpa anyway. In 1537, the Spanish defeated the last of the Incas and gained control over the entire region. Spanish Control

36 Spanish Control Fall of the Inca similar to fall of the Aztecs
Both had internal problems when the Spanish arrived Cortes and Pizarro captured the leaders of the each empire Guns and horses gave the Spanish a great military advantage Disease weakened native peoples. Spanish Control

37 Why do you think farmers created terraces in the mountains?
Who was the Inca ruler when Pizarro arrived in the empire? Why do you think the Spaniards attacked when Atahualpa would not convert to Christianity? Bell Work 9/27/12

38 When did the Spaniards defeat the last of the Inca?
How were the conquests of the Inca and Aztec Empires similar? Bell Work 9/28/12

39 Inca Life and Society Chapter 15 Section 4

40 Society & Daily Life Two Classes Incas from Cuzco = Upper Class
Conquered peoples = Lower Class Society & Daily Life

41 Daily Life for the Upper Class
The King, priests, and government officials made up the Inca Upper Class. Sons of upper class families went to school in Cuzco. They studied Quechua, religion, history, and law to prepare for their lives as government or religious officials. Daily Life for the Upper Class

42 Daily Life for the Upper Class
Lived in stone houses and wore the best clothes. They didn’t have to pay the labor tax, and often had servants Daily Life for the Upper Class

43 Daily Life of the Lower Class
Most Incas were farmers, artisans, or servants. There were no slaves in Inca society Farmed on government lands, served in the army, worked in mines, and built roads. Most children did not go to school, but some young girls did go to school to learn weaving, cooking, and religion. Lived outside of Cuzco in small houses. By law, they had to wear plain clothes, also, they couldn’t own more goods then they needed. Daily Life of the Lower Class

44 Had an official religion which was taught to all conquered peoples.
But the people could still worship their own gods too. The sun god was the most important in the Inca religion. Kings were believed to be related to the sun god. Religion

45 Religion Priests brought mummies of former kings to many ceremonies.
People gave these mummies food and gifts. - Ceremonies often included sacrifice, but not humans, usually llamas, cloth, or food. Religion

46 Building, Art, and Oral Literature
Massive buildings and forts made of huge, stone blocks. Workers cut the blocks so precisely that they didn’t have to use cement to hold them together. Even today, nearly impossible to fit a knife blade between the stones. Also, built a system of very good roads Had two major highways that ran the length of the empire Building, Art, and Oral Literature

47 Made gold and silver jewelry
Best textiles in the Americas Art

48 Oral Literature No written records
All stories passed down orally through stories and songs. Oral Literature

49 Take out a pencil or pen, binder paper, and your progress reports
Put everything else away and wait for instruction from Mr. Baptista. Bell Work 10/1/12

50 Take out any progress reports not turned in yet.
Wait to be told when to begin your projects by Mr. Baptista Bell Work 10/2/12

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