Language is a system of structural related elements, like phonological units, grammatical units, and lexical items, for the transmission of meaning. So to learn the target language is to mater the elements of the target language system.
Separation of language skills into listening, speaking, reading and writing, with emphasis on the teaching of listening and speaking before reading and writing; Use of dialogues as the chief means of presenting the language; Emphasis on certain practice techniques: mimicry, memorization and pattern drills; Discouraging the use of the mother tongue in the classroom
Students take the role of one person in the dialogue and the teacher the other. Switch roles and memorize the other person’s part. Half of the class to take one role and the other half to take the other. Some pairs of students might perform the dialogue for the rest of the class.
To give cue phrase(s), one at time, that fits into different slot(s) in the dialogue line. To recognize what part if speech each cue is and make any other changes, such as subject-verb agreement. To fit cue phrase into line where it belongs and to say the line loudly.
to change a certain kind of sentence pattern to another form to transform an affirmative sentence into a negative one to transform a statement into a question. to transform an active sentence into a passive one to transform a direct speech into reported one
Students practice the target language with answering questions and the question patterns. Students answer the teacher’s question quickly.
The first method to have a theory. Making language teaching possible to large groups of learners Emphasizing sentence production, control over grammatical structures and development of oral ability. Developing simple techniques and making use of language labs. Developing the separation of the language skills
Based on a weak theory Not developing language competence, lack of effectiveness, and boredom caused by endless pattern drills. Learners having little control over their learning. Teacher’s domination of the class. Teacher-oriented materials.