Cognitive Science Overview Design Activity Cognitive Apprenticeship Theory Cognitive Flexibility Theory
Scenario Cognitive Science Software Review While reviewing the software presented, observe: –How did the theory we discussed so far inform the features that were implemented –Which improvements would you recommend, and why? –Which strengths and weaknesses did you see in the software? Find additional examples for Learning environments that were designed based on Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Apprenticeship online.
Scenario Cognitive Science Software Review Find additional examples for Learning environments that were designed based on Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Apprenticeship online. Present to class, focusing on the same questions: –How did the theory we discussed so far inform the features that were implemented –Which improvements would you recommend, and why? –Which strengths and weaknesses did you see in the software?
Scenario Cognitive Science Instructional Design Models Living Systems Approach Plass & Salisbury (2002)
Scenario Cognitive Science Design Activity Tasks –Choose a topic (see web site) –Discuss which elements of Cognitive Flexibility Theory or Cognitive Apprenticeship Theory you want to implement –Discuss how you want to implement these elements by choosing features and functionality that are informed by them or support them –Summarize your design on your group web site, using external links if possible (to web pages serving as examples for your ideas)
Scenario Cognitive Science Design Activity Topics 1. Design a multimedia learning environment for freshmen students learning Spanish that supports vocabulary acquisition and the process of reading a text in Spanish. 2. Design a multimedia learning environment to allow medical doctors to learn about newly developed surgical procedures. 3. Design a multimedia learning environment to train Airline Pilots in emergency procedures. 4. Design a multimedia learning environment on the the history of the American civil war for university students. 5. Design a multimedia learning environment for high school students learning about HIV/AIDS.
Cognitive Science Definition Method not involving didactic teaching, but observation, coaching, and successive approximation Embeds the learning of skills in their social and functional context Collins, Brown, & Newman (1989) Cognitive Apprenticeship
Cognitive Science Principles Aimed primarily at teaching process used by experts to handle complex tasks Conceptual and factual knowledge: CA emphasized their uses in solving problems and carrying out tasks Refers to the focus of learning-through-guided-experience on cognitive and meta- cognitive (rather than physical) skills and processes Cognitive Apprenticeship
Cognitive Science Design Approach Understand nature of expert practice Device methods appropriate to learning that practice Cognitive Apprenticeship
Cognitive Science Content Domain knowledge (conceptual, factual) Heuristic strategies (generally effective techniques to accomplish tasks) Control strategies (monitoring, diagnostic, remedial) Learning strategies (general or local strategies of knowledge acquisition) Cognitive Apprenticeship
Cognitive Science Methods Externalize cognitive processes carried out internally Develop extended techniques to encourage development of self-correction and monitoring skills: Modeling Coaching Scaffolding Articulation Reflection Exploration Cognitive Apprenticeship
Cognitive Science Sequence Increasing complexity Increasing diversity Global before local skills Sociology Situated learning Culture of expert practice Intrinsic motivation Exploiting cooperation Exploiting competition Cognitive Apprenticeship
Cognitive Science Role of Conceptual Model Advance organizer for initial attempt to execute a complex skill -> More attention on skill execution Interpretive structure for making sense of feedback, hints, corrections Internalized guide for period of relatively independent practice by successive approximation Encourages autonomy in reflection Cognitive Apprenticeship
Cognitive Science Approaches to Adaptive Learning Environments Compensation Approach Compensate for shortcomings Preference Approach Support Strengths Remediation Approach Identify and address shortcomings Salomon’s Heuristics
Scenario Cognitive Science Cognitive Flexibility Theory Problems of Existing Instructional Approaches Learning facts vs. Learning for Transfer Domain Complexity not introduced early enough Learning not Contextualized Over-reliance on prototype cases (Single instances of concepts limit mental models)
Scenario Cognitive Science Cognitive Flexibility Theory Emphasize knowledge assembly rather than reproductive memory Introduce both conceptual complexity and domain complexity early Promote active student learning
Scenario Cognitive Science Cognitive Flexibility Theory Need for Rearranged instructional sequences Multiple dimensions of knowledge representation Multiple connections across knowledge components => Hypertext environments as well as video games as candidates for promoting Cognitive Flexibility
Scenario Cognitive Science Cognitive Flexibility Theory Features Case-based materials -Involve students in authentic activities -Multiple representations of knowledge -Multiple contexts for learning Conceptual indexing and variable hypertext links -Coding material with abstract conceptual or structural knowledge (mental models) -Variable HT links as situated view of knowledge
Scenario Cognitive Science Cognitive Flexibility Theory Case-theme commentaries -Explanation of how a structural dimension of knowledge applies in different case-specific or situated contexts -Knowledge-in-use -Indexicalized knowledge representation Conceptual structure search -Content is re-edited to produce particular kind of ‘criss- crossing’ the conceptual landscape that visits large set case examples of concepts the learner chose to explore
Scenario Cognitive Science Cognitive Flexibility Theory Thematic criss-crossing -Nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter -Use conceptual indexing to highlight different facets of instructional material -Criss-cross conceptual landscape -Demonstrate interconnected and web-like nature of knowledge -Process of knowledge assembly -Scaffolding by providing support based on structural knowledge components
Scenario Cognitive Science Cognitive Flexibility Theory Double Constructivism Understandings constructed using prior knowledge Prior knowledge constructed on a case-by-case basis