European Immigrants October 17, 2003 Period 7 Immigration From Europe between 1820 and 1920
Who were the immigrants? The European immigrants were divided in two groups: Old Immigrants and New Immigrants The cut off date between the two groups was the year 1890 Old Immigrants mainly came from western and northern Europe New immigrants mainly came from eastern and southern Europe
Old Immigrants Germany Ireland England France Sweden Netherlands New Immigrants Italy Austria-Hungary Russia Poland Finland Greece Where exactly were they from?
How many immigrated? 5.5 million immigrants came from Germany More than 4 million people emigrated from each, Ireland and Italy All in all over 28 million people immigrated from Europe to the United States between 1820 and 1920
Map of European Emigration to the United States 1820-1920
The Old Immigrants Most of them were Protestant Spoke English Skilled workers Had money to buy farmland Educated
The New Immigrants Catholic and Jewish Spoke no English Unskilled workers Had no money – settled in the cities Uneducated
Why did they come to the USA? Brought in as slaves or indentured servants USA offered cheap or even free farmland Job opportunities, better tax situation Religious freedom Democratic government – political freedom Adventure
Why did they leave their countries? Most parts of Europe were overpopulated No jobs, no income, no poverty Wars and civil wars Failed revolutions (Germany, Russia, Austria- Hungary) Landlordism (Ireland, Scotland, England) Crop failures (Ireland)
Good news from friends and relatives who already emigrated American companies sent agents for Europeans to get them as cheap labor Railroad companies recruited Europeans to settle in new towns at their railroads to increase the value of the land around the railroads which they owned How did they hear about the USA?
Bibliography DeLorenzo, Joshua. “The Era of “Old” Immigration.” Regents Prep.: U.S. History: Immigration & Migration. 2001. http://regentsprep.org/Regents/ushisgov/themes/immigration/ old_immigration (31 Oct. 2003) DeLorenzo, Joshua. “The Era of “New” Immigration.” Regents Prep.: U.S. History: Immigration & Migration. 2001. http://regentsprep.org/Regents/ushisgov/themes/immigration/ new_immigration (31 Oct. 2003) “Immigration 1820-1920.” Spartacus Educational. 2002. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAES1920S (28 Oct. 2003) Map searched with Google “European+Emigration+USA” (24 Oct. 2003)