Presentation on theme: "Slavery and Western Expansion. Contrast the economies, societies, and political views of the North and the South. Describe the role of the Free-Soil Party."— Presentation transcript:
Contrast the economies, societies, and political views of the North and the South. Describe the role of the Free-Soil Party in the election of 1848. Analyze why slavery in the territories was a divisive issue between North and South and how Congress tried to settle the issue in 1850. Objectives
Wilmot Proviso – outlawed slavery in lands won from Mexico Free-Soil Party – a political party that promised free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men popular sovereignty – followers believed a territory’s voters should decide themselves whether to allow slavery Terms and People
secede – to break away, especially from the Union Compromise of 1850 – legislation designed to avoid division between North and South over slavery Fugitive Slave Act – stringent laws that required citizens to apprehend fugitive slaves Terms and People (continued)
How did Congress try to resolve the dispute between North and South over slavery? As the nation expanded, the problem of slavery became a divisive and difficult issue to resolve. Different economies and viewpoints of the North and the South hindered compromise.
The North, a manufacturing society The South, an agricultural society Cities and towns were trade centers Factories and farms produced goods Paid labor source, few slaves Many immigrants Cities and towns were few and far between Large plantations and small farms were source of wealth Enslaved labor force of African Americans Few immigrants
The North and the South had very different views of slavery.
Slavery and the NorthSlavery and the South Few people had slaves and slavery ended by 1860. Slavery was an integral part of life with over 1 million enslaved African Americans. Early in the 1800s, some northerners began to work for the abolition of slavery. Many believed God intended blacks to provide labor for whites. Many northern states limited the rights and migration of free African Americans, so many white northerners had little contact with them. Southerners claimed that enslaved people were healthier and happier than northern wage earners.
The North and South had different views about new territories. The South wanted the new territories to be slave states. The North wanted the new territories to be free states.
Keeping a balance between free and slave states became the focus of Congress. It was defeated, but it brought the slavery issue into public debate. In 1846, the Wilmot Proviso stated that all lands acquired from Mexico would be free territories.
In the election of 1848, the two political parties, the Democrats and the Whigs, split over the issue of slavery and a third party was formed, the Free-Soil Party. “free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men”
The Free-Soil party lost the election but had a large influence on politics before the Civil War. PlatformImpact “Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men.” It won 10 percent of the vote Keep slavery out of the western territories. It raised the question as to who would decide the slavery issue. A national platform of “freedom.” Tensions increased when California sought to join the Union as a free state.
The Democrats and Whigs were forced to address the slavery issue. Both parties supported popular sovereignty, having voters in a territory decide whether their territory would be free or slave. Having voters decide had wide appeal since it seemed to keep with the tradition of American democracy. It would also remove Congress from the controversy.
Daniel Webster from the North John Calhoun from the South Henry Clay from the West Once again, the slavery issue was debated in the Senate by three political leaders.
Henry Clay proposed a compromise balancing the number of free states and slave states in Congress known as the Compromise of 1850.
Calhoun and Webster’s positions on Clay’s compromise during Senate debate: Calhoun Webster Clay’s compromise did not give the South enough protection. The South would break away from the Union if it did not get its demands on the slavery issue. Any state had the right to secede if it disagreed with national laws. The states should rally to the cause of unity. Sectional compromise was needed in order to preserve the Union. Webster supported popular sovereignty.
The NorthThe South California would be admitted to the Union as a free state. Congress would pass a stricter fugitive slave law. The territories of New Mexico and Utah would decide on slavery by a vote. Slavery would be enforced in Wash., DC, although the slave trade would be abolished. The compromise brought calm to the nation, but larger crises loomed. The Compromise of 1850 finally became a law stating that:
Compromise of 1850 California would be admitted as a free state Popular sovereignty would be used to decide the question of slavery in the Mexico and Utah territories The slave trade would be abolished in D.C., but slavery would remain A stronger fugitive slave law would be passed Texas would give up its claim to New Mexico in return for $10 million
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 Senator Stephen Douglas proposed using popular sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery It was believed that Nebraska would choose to be a free territory and Kansas would choose to be slave Some believed that this overturned the Missouri Compromise which had been in place for over 30 years