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Secretariat for the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) Kosi Latu – Deputy Secretary General.

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Presentation on theme: "Secretariat for the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) Kosi Latu – Deputy Secretary General."— Presentation transcript:

1 Secretariat for the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) Kosi Latu – Deputy Secretary General

2  21 Pacific Island Countries including US and French Territories  5 Metropolitan countries – Australia, France, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States 2

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5 1. Pacific Island Forum Leaders various declarations have consistently stated that the adverse impact of climate change is potentially the most serious long term threat to the survival and livelihood of Pacific people 2. Recognized the close relationship between climate change and sustainable development efforts 5

6  Three Negotiation Tracks  AWG-LCA: Ad-hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA): launched in 2007), due to finish in 2012  ADP: Ad-hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action: launched in 2011, due to finish in 2015.  AWG-KP: Ad-hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties: launched in 2005, needs to finish in 2012 6

7 1. Ad-hoc Working Group On the Long Term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA)  Launched in 2007 under the Bali Action Plan to conduct a comprehensive process to enable the full and sustained implementation of the Convention through long term action up to and beyond 2012  Mandated by COP 17 (Durban) to terminate in at COP 18(Doha) 7

8  Doha needs to address all outstanding issues under the Bali Action Plan  Disagreement as to whether more work is needed to successfully conclude the work of the AWG-LCA  AOSIS, LDCs & some Developing Countries emphasize the need for progress towards operationalization of various institutions and bodies established under Cancun and Durban – e.g. GCF, Adaptation Committee etc  Successful conclusion of the AWG-LCA at Doha is required 8

9 2. Ad-hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP)  Agreed to start a process leading to the adoption of a new Protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force no later than 2015 to be effective by 2020  This new process will now focus on doing in 2015 what it failed to do in 2009 in Copenhagen – reaching an agreement to succeed the Kyoto Protocol 9

10 Process to develop “a protocol, legal instrument or agreed outcome with legal force”, adopted in 2015, apply from 2020  cover mitigation, adaptation, finance, tech, transparency  “under the Convention”  “applicable to all” – symmetry vs differentiation?  ADP process “shall raise ambition” – Ambition Work-plan Treaty-level instrument (Protocol), or COP decisions? 10

11  Agreement on 2 work-streams post 2020 and pre-2020 ambition  Work stream on enhancing mitigation ambition during the pre-2020 timeframe  AOSIS and LDCs and others particularly support enhancing mitigation ambition now and before 2020  AOSIS priority is to close the “ambition gap” 11

12  Differences within G77 and China block  Attempts to revise common but differentiated – Does the Bali Action Plan “ differentiation” still apply? Valid or out of date?  “Applicable to all” – universality of application or uniformity application; fair application?  Developed countries increasingly referring to current socio-economic realities, flexible and dynamic structures to evolve over time to promote increasing ambition as countries’ capabilities and confidence grow 12

13  COP 17(Durban) – Parties agreed to a 2 nd Commitment period starting 1 January 2013  1 st Commitment Period of 5 years (2008- 2012) finishes December 2012  Length of the 2 nd Commitment Period – At Durban, Parties could not agree – options - either 5 years or 8 years 13

14  Pacific island countries prefer a 5 year period as anticipated under the structure of Kyoto Protocol  Crucial to link the 2 nd Commitment Period to periodic scientific reviews which are typically 5 to 7 years e.g. IPPC 5 th Assessment Report to be published in 2013 and 2014  This will allow countries to act on the new science in the AR5  A 2 nd Commitment Period of 8 years implies that it would take another 6 years before action is taken on the new science 14

15  Avoiding a lock-in of low ambition for 8 years  Pledges for 2012 are clearly insufficient to bring down the level of emissions necessary to bring down warming below 2 º or 1.5 º  EU proposal of 8 years with a mid-term review and adjustment of targets  Adjustment of commitments will mean re- negotiation and re-ratification by Governments before it is considered binding. 15

16 Complex and fragmented landscape. Overlap and duplication instead of complementarity Various channels: Multilateral Development Banks, Regional Development Banks, Regional & Bilateral initiatives/arrangements All have different scale, focus, mission, procedures, governance system and criteria and delivery modalities Makes access complicated Makes tracking of finance flows difficult 16

17 Fast Start Finance (USD 30 billion) comes to an end in 2012 No clarity how the mobilization towards USD 100 billion in 2020 will be sequenced, no pathway defined Developing countries advocating for a mid-term target in 2015 to provide re-assurance and predictability (AOSIS proposal in Bangkok) Long Term Finance Work-programme to provide input on the way forward on sources: Report of the Co-Chairs of the Long Term Finance stream will be submitted to COP18 17

18  Pacific Island countries seek access to climate change financing commensurate with climate change needs  GCF needs to be operationalised  Mobilization of Funds will take a few more years  First Report by the GCF Board to COP 18 18

19  COP 16 (Cancun) – Agreement to establish the Adaptation Committee  Work Programme on loss and damage  Durban Platform – Parties agreed to advance the implementation of the Cancun Adaptation Framework by agreeing on activities to be undertaken under the Work- Programme of loss and damage 19

20  Successful closure of AWG-LCA in Doha  Establishment of an international mechanism to address loss and damage 20

21 COP 18 to adopt a decision in Doha to establish an international mechanism to address loss and damage with three mutually reinforcing components: 1. An insurance component; 2. A rehabilitation/compensation component; 3. A risk management component. 21

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