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Motivation and Empowerment

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1 Motivation and Empowerment
Chapter 8 Motivation and Empowerment

2 Learning Objectives Recognize and apply the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards Tap into the motives that induce people to take action to accomplish important goals Motivate others by meeting their higher-level needs Apply needs-based theories of motivation and understand how the concept of equity applies to motivation

3 Learning Objectives Describe the psychological and structural elements of empowerment and how empowerment contributes to motivation Apply the job characteristics model to enrich jobs Identify factors that play a role in employee engagement and use engagement to meet higher level needs

4 Learning Objectives Build a thriving workforce by giving people a sense of making progress toward meaningful goals

5 Exhibit 8.1 - A Simple Model of Motivation

6 Types of Rewards Intrinsic rewards
Internal satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action Appeal to the higher needs of individuals Intrinsic rewards Given by another person, typically a supervisor Pay raise and promotions Appeal to the lower needs of individuals Extrinsic rewards

7 Exhibit 8.2 - Needs of People and Motivation Methods

8 Exhibit 8.3 - Four Categories of Motives
Source: Based on Bruce H. Jackson, “Influence Behavior: Become a Master Motivator,” Leadership Excellence (April 2010), p. 14

9 Needs-Based Theory of Motivation
Maslow’s theory proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs and those needs exist in a hierarchical order Hierarchy of needs theory Hygiene factors: Involves the presence or absence of job dissatisfiers, such as working conditions, pay, company policies, and interpersonal relationships Motivators: Involves job satisfaction and meeting higher-level needs such as achievement, recognition, and opportunity for growth Two-factor theory McClelland’s theory proposes that certain types of needs are acquired during an individual’s lifetime Need for achievement, affiliation, and power Acquired needs theory

10 Exhibit 8.4 - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

11 Exhibit 8.5 - Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

12 Other Motivation Theories
Looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences Behavior modification: Set of techniques by which reinforcement theory is used to modify behavior Reinforcement theory Motivation depends on individuals’ mental expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards  Expectancy theory People are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for performance State of equity - Ratio of one person’s outcomes to inputs equals the ratio of others’ in the work group Inequity - Input/outcome ratios are out of balance Equity theory

13 Exhibit 8.6 - Shaping Behavior with Reinforcement

14 Exhibit 8.7 - Key Elements of Expectancy Theory

15 Exhibit 8.8 - The Job Characteristics Model
Source: Adapted from J. Richard hackman and G.R. Oldham, “Motivation through the design of Work: Test of a Theory,” Organizational Behavior Human Performance 16 (1976): 256

16 Exhibit 8.9 - The Empowerment Continuum

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