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Solution Concentration

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Calculations of Solution Concentration: Mass Percent Mass percent Mass percent is the ratio of mass units of solute to mass units of solution, expressed as a percent

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A Simplifying Assumption 1 ml of water = 1 gram of water1 ml of water = 1 gram of water 1000 ml of water = 1 liter = 1000 grams1000 ml of water = 1 liter = 1000 grams Assume that solutions with water as the solvent have the density of pure water (1 mL = 1 gram)Assume that solutions with water as the solvent have the density of pure water (1 mL = 1 gram) –It’s not true, but it’s close enough –It’s not true, but it’s close enough

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Calculations of Solution Concentration Mole fraction Mole fraction – the ratio of moles of solute to total moles of solution

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Calculations of Solution Concentration: Molarity Molarity Molarity is the ratio of moles of solute to liters of solution

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Preparation of Molar Solutions Problem: How many grams of sodium chloride are needed to prepare 1.50 liters of 0.500 M NaCl solution? Step #1: Ask “How Much?” (What volume to prepare?) 1.500 L Step #2: Ask “How Strong?” (What molarity?) 0.500 mol 1 L Step #3: Ask “What does it weigh?” (Molar mass is?) 58.44 g 1 mol = 43.8 g

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Calculations of Solution Concentration Molality Molality – moles of solute per kilogram of solvent

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Serial Dilution Problem: What volume of stock (11.6 M) hydrochloric acid is needed to prepare 250. mL of 3.0 M HCl solution? M stock V stock = M dilute V dilute (11.6 M)(x Liters) = (3.0 M)(0.250 Liters) x Liters = (3.0 M)(0.250 Liters) 11.6 M = 0.065 L

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