Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 27 Bacteria & Archaea.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27 Bacteria & Archaea."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 27 Bacteria & Archaea

2 How do bacterial cell walls differ from plant cell walls?
Plants – made of cellulose (polysaccharide) Bacteria – made of peptidoglycan Archaea – lack peptidoglycan, made of a variety of polysaccharides and proteins

3 Gram Staining - + More complex, less peptidoglycan, outer layer of lipopolysaccharides Simpler cell wall, large amounts of peptidoglycan

4 Capsule – sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein covering the cell wall of many prokaryotes
enables them to adhere to substrate or other cells (colony) prevent dehydration protects from host’s immune system Fimbriae – hair-like protein appendages (aka “attachment pili”) Sex pili – appendages that pull two cells together prior to DNA transfer from one cell to the other.

5 Bacteria Locomotion Flagella Slimmer than Eukaryotic flagella Not covered by plasma membrane as Eukaryotic flagella a Different molecular composition and Eukaryotic flagella Mechanism of propulsion is different than Eukaryotic

6 Taxis – movement towards or away from a stimulus
Positive taxis – towards stimulus Negative taxis – away from stimulus Examples: Chemotaxis Phototaxis

7 Transformation – pGLO lab – genotype and
Transformation – pGLO lab – genotype and possibly phenotype is changed by the uptake of foreign DNA from its surroundings. pGLO Griffins experiment Transduction – Bacteriophages (viruses) carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another (accidents during viral replication)

8 Conjugation – DNA transfer from. one bacterial cell to another
Conjugation – DNA transfer from one bacterial cell to another (same or different species) Binary Fission – asexual reproduction of bacteria

9 What is the difference between and F plasmid and an R plasmid?
F plasmid – contains genes that enable cell to form a “mating bridge” with a cell that does not have the plasmid. R plasmid – contains genes that make it resistant to antibiotics What is the difference between F+ cells and F- cells? F+ cells contain the F plasmid and therefore are donors during conjugation F- cells do not contain the F plasmid and therefore are recipients during conjugation

10 Transformation Transduction Conjugation
Questions from 27.2 pg. 564 What features of prokaryotes make it likely that considerable genetic variation will be added to their populations in each generation? Large population size (more likely that more individuals will have new mutations at any particular gene…adding diversity) Short generation time. Distinguish between the three mechanisms of transferring DNA from one bacterial cell to another. Transformation Transduction Conjugation If a nonpathogenic bacterium were to acquire resistance to antibiotics, could this strain pose a health risk to people? Explain. Yes. Genes for antibiotic resistance could be transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium, which could then harm the population. (MRSA). The processes listed in #2 increase the spread of resistance genes.

Download ppt "Chapter 27 Bacteria & Archaea."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google