Presentation on theme: "118/2/2015 Cancer & the Immune System Hugh B. Fackrell."— Presentation transcript:
118/2/2015 Cancer & the Immune System Hugh B. Fackrell
228/2/2015 Cancer & the Immune System l Assigned Reading l Content Outline l Performance Objectives –Key terms –Key Concepts l Short Answer Questions
338/2/2015 Assigned Reading l Janis Kuby’s Immunology 4th Ed Chapter: 22 pp 539-561 l Janis Kuby’s Immunology 3rd Ed l Chapter: 24 pp 573-596
448/2/2015 Content Outline l Origins & Terms l Malignant Transformation l Tumours of the Immune System l Tumour Antigens l TATAs on human melanomas l Immune Response to Tumours l Tumour Evasion of Immune Response l Cancer Immunotherapy
45 8/2/2015 Tumour Cell Vaccine Immune Response to MCA or PV Transplant killed cells of MCA induced sarcoma A l Challenge with Sarcoma A- No Growth l Challenge with Sarcoma B- growth Transplant killed cells of Polyoma Virus induced sarcoma A l Challenge with sarcoma A no growth l challenge with sarcoma B no growth l SV40 induced sarcoma C- growth
61 8/2/2015 Key Terms l antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), benign tumour, cancer, l carcinogens, proto oncogens, immune surveillance, Specific immunotherapy, l non specific immunotherapy, immunotoxins,Lymphokine activated killer cell(LAK),
62 8/2/2015 l neoplasm, oncofetal antigens, oncogens, tumour, tumour associated antigens, l tumour associated transplantation antigens, tumour specific antigens, l tumour specific transplantation antigens
63 8/2/2015 Key Concepts l Differentiate between a benign tumour and a malignant tumour. l Describe the concept of immunosurveillance l Describe the different ways that tumours can camouflage themselves to evade immune defenses, l Discuss the advantages of immunotherapy over other forms of cancer therapy.
64 8/2/2015 l Distinguish between specific and nonspecific immunotherapy with the use of specific examples. l Describe immunotoxins. l Describe the development of humanized antibodies to tumour antigens l Evalulate the contribution of T cells, NK cells, Macrophages, and B cells to tumour immunity.
65 8/2/2015 l Distinguish between tumour specific transplantation antigens and tumour assoicated transplantation antigens. l Describe oncofetal antigens.
67 8/2/2015 l Explain how some cancer cells that can make TGF-beta are immunosuppressive. l Tumours and transplants are similar to one another,yet very different. Explain this observation in the context of what the immune system recognizes and the result of this recognition. l The qualities of proliferation and differentiation are essentially all that distinguishes a normal cell from a cancer cell. Explain.
68 8/2/2015 l Design an experiment using mice that proves that the immune system provides immunity against tumours. l Distinguish between tumour-specific transplantation antigens (TSTA) and tumour associated transplantation antigens (TATA). l Design an experiment to show Tumour associated Transplantation Antigens (TATA). l What is the main difference separating cell surface antigens from chemically induced and virually induced cancers?
69 8/2/2015 l Speculate on why this difference leads to difficulty in designing anticancer vaccines. l What are oncofetal antigens? Are they important in tumour immunity? Why? l What is immune surveillance? l All evidence for immune surveillance is indirect. Speculate on how you could get direct evidence.
70 8/2/2015 l What immune cells play a role in tumour rejection? Briefly describe how each accomplishes this task. Include such things as cytokines, perforins, ADCC etc. l Cancers camouflage themselves to evade antitumour defenses. Pick three possible forms of camouflage that you think are most important, describe them and state why you think they are most important. l What are immunotoxins?
71 8/2/2015 l Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are the methods most widely used to treat cancer patients. What are the problems with this regimen, and how could immunotherapy overcome these problems. l Distinguish between specific and nonspecific immunotherapy.