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Introduction to Measurement and Evaluation

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1 Introduction to Measurement and Evaluation
PE 254 Introduction to Measurement and Evaluation

2 Measurement and Evaluation in Your Daily Routine
alarm clock gasoline gauge speedometer meeting new people opinion of this class

3 Current Trends public health initiatives
promotion of physical activity problems with obesity evaluation standards for school programs

4 Test and Data Test: An instrument or activity used to accumulate data on a person’s ability to perform a specified task. In kinesiology the content of these tests are usually either cognitive, skill, or fitness. Data: The translation of behavior into a numerical or verbal descriptor which is then recorded in written form.

5 Why Administer Tests? To measure individual differences on a specific trait (behavior). Discussion: Is a test “good” if everyone/anyone scores 100%? Or, is a test “good” if everyone/anyone scores 0%?

6 Use of Tests Motivation Achievement Improvement Diagnosis Prescription
Grading Classification Prediction

7 Administrative Concerns in Test Selection
Relevance Education value Economic value Time Norms Bias Safety

8 Measurement A measurement takes place when a “test” is given and a “score” is obtained . If the test collects quantitative data, the score is a number. If the test collects qualitative data, the score may be a phrase or word such as “excellent.”

9 Types of Assessment Quantitative Qualitative time in one mile run
score on basketball spot shooting test grade on weight training exam Qualitative “excellent” ranking on throwing form checklist on golf swing score on gymnastics routine

10 Measurement Process Involves Four Steps
Define the characteristics that you want to measure. Select the appropriate test. This may also mean to select the appropriate testing instrument. Administer the test. If an instrument is involved in the testing, this also means to use the instrument correctly. Collect and record the measurement from the test.

11 Considerations When Taking Measurements
Remember that you are measuring a characteristic of the person—you are not measuring the person themselves; thus, make no judgments about the person. Make no comical remarks regarding the collected data. Have a high ethical standards when collecting the data. Be professional.

12 Subjective vs. Objective Measurement
A subjective measurement is one that can possibly be interpreted differently. An objective measurement is one that cannot be interpreted differently because of numerical values.

13 Class Discussion Every time you go to a doctor’s office, they weigh you. Let’s say you weigh 140 pounds. Did your measurement of 140 pounds come from a test? Why or why not?

14 Evaluation Definition 1: The process of making judgments about the results of measurement in terms of the purpose of the measurement. Definition 2: The process of obtaining information (data) and using it to form judgments, which in turn are used in decision making.

15 Steps Involved in Making an Evaluation
Define the objective or the purpose of the test. Measure the performance or administer the test. Find or develop a standard. Compare a person’s performance on the test to a standard. Make the evaluation then discuss and distribute the results in the most appropriate manner.

16 Formative & Summative Evaluation
Formative evaluation: If the evaluation is at the beginning or during. Summative evaluation: If the evaluation is at the end.

17 Professional Measurement and Evaluation
protocols for assessing injuries and charting rehabilitation statistical information that coaches collect in athletics fitness testing in schools assessing a client’s fitness level and evaluating progress

18 Norms Evaluations are often based on norms:
Local norm: Norms based on a relatively small group of subjects. Ex: Pull-up norms for 7th grade boys at one school. State norms: Norms that are representative of all similar subjects in the state. Ex: CAHPERD fitness norms for 7th grade boys. National norms: Norms that are representative of all similar subjects in the United States. Ex: AAHPERD fitness norms for 7th grade girls.

19 Reliability Reliability defined as the consistency of an individual when repeatedly performing the same test. Example: If a group of people take the same test on two different days, the scores obtained should be approximately the same. A reliable test will yield data that are stable, repeatable, and precise. Reliability of a test refers to the dependability of test scores.

20 Validity The American Psychological Association (APA) reported that validity is the most important characteristic to a test or measuring instrument. The validity of each test can only be evaluated in terms of a particular purpose and for a particular group. Example: A strength test that is valid for college-aged students is not necessarily valid for sedentary adults.

21 Group Activity Identify the reliability and validity for administering the 1.5-mile run in college-aged students. Identify the reliability and validity for administering a standing broad jump in elementary school students. Identify the reliability and validity for administering basketball free throws in junior high students. Identify the reliability and validity for administering a field goal kick in football among high school students in a physical education class.

22 Quick Summary: Test, Measurement, and Evaluation
Test – instrument, protocol, or technique that measures attribute of interest Measurement – process of collecting data on attribute of interest Evaluation – process of interpreting the collected measurement to make professional judgment of value or worth

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