Presentation on theme: "What we can do with genes"— Presentation transcript:
1 What we can do with genes Genetic EngineeringWhat we can do with genes
2 Selective BreedingHumans select animals or plants with desirable (beneficial) traits and breed themThis ensures that many of the offspring will have desirable traits from both parentsThis is how we have so many breeds of dogs and cats!This is also how we have certain fruits and vegetables with certain traitsDoes NOT involve actually changing DNA!
3 What is Genetic Engineering? Technology that humans use to alter DNA or study DNAExamples:DNA Fingerprinting (Gel Electrophoresis)Used in paternity testingUsed as evidence in criminal casesDNA RecombinationInserting a gene into bacterial DNABacteria will then construct the protein coded for in that DNA
4 Restriction EnzymesSpecial enzymes that recognize certain DNA bases and then actually cut (splice) the DNA at that locationUsed in DNA Fingerprinting and DNA RecombinationEXAMPLE: EcoRI recognizes GAATTCWill cut at this spot between the G and ACreates STICKY ENDS (single strands of DNA) that can bind to new DNA
6 Restriction Enzyme Animations! Let’s See!Let’s See Again!
7 Types of Genetic Engineering Gel ElectrophoresisSeparates DNA into different banding patterns based onNUMBER OF BASES IN EACH CUT STRANDDNA is cut up using a restriction enzymeThis leaves DNA strands of different sizesCHARGE OF DNADNA is negatively (-) charged, so it will move towards a positive chargeDNA separates due to opposite charge at one end of chamber and how heavy it isMakes a “finger-print”Parents will have similar banding to their children and vice-versa
10 Types of Genetic Engineering Recombinant DNA TechnologyInserting gene from one organism into a circular piece of bacterial DNA called a plasmid
11 Steps for causing bacteria to make human insulin by Recombinant technology: Cut out insulin gene from human DNA using a restriction enzymeCut open bacterial plasmid using same restriction enzymeCombine cut plasmids with many copies of human geneSeveral plasmids will “accept” human geneThese plasmids now have the ability to make human insulin
13 Benefits of Genetic Engineering Making large amounts of a human protein, such as insulinFinding cures by altering DNADNA Fingerprinting has helped us to see how similar certain orgs. areAlter DNA in plants to make them resistant to certain diseasesPaternity tests! Let’s See!