1 Chapter 34 Diane Wherrett, Céline Huot, Beth Mitchell, Danièle Pacaud Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Type 1 Diabetes in Children and AdolescentsChapter 34Diane Wherrett, Céline Huot, Beth Mitchell, Danièle Pacaud
2 Key Messages2013Suspicion of diabetes in a child should lead to immediate confirmation of the diagnosis and initiation of treatment to reduce the likelihood of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)Management of pediatric DKA differs from DKA in adults because of the increased risk for cerebral edema. Pediatric protocols should be usedChildren should be referred for diabetes education, ongoing care, and psychosocial support to a diabetes team with pediatric expertise
3 Overview Education Glycemic targets Insulin therapy Glucose monitoring NutritionHypoglycemiaDKAImmunizationSmokingSexual HealthPsychologyComorbiditiesComplicationsTransition to Adult care
4 IntroductionDiabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease and one of the most common chronic conditions in childrenType 2 diabetes and other types of diabetes, including genetic defects of beta cell function, such as maturity-onset diabetes of the young, are being increasingly recognized in children and should be considered when clinical presentation is atypical for type 1 diabetes
5 Education – Key Message Education, from diagnosis onwards, is complex, touching on a range of issues medical and social. Therefore it is best done by a multidisciplinary team trained in pediatric diabetes.
6 Education – Key Message Children with new-onset type 1 diabetes and their families require intensive diabetes education by an interdisciplinary pediatric diabetes healthcare (DHC) team. Education topics should include:Prevention, detection and treatment of hypoglycemiaInsulin action and administrationDosage adjustmentBlood glucose (BG) and ketone testingSick-day managementPrevention of DKANutrition and exercise
7 EducationAnticipatory guidance and lifestyle counselling should be part of routine care during critical developmental transitions (e.g. school entry, beginning high school).Healthcare providers should regularly initiate discussions with children and their families aboutSchoolDiabetes campPsychological issuesSubstance useDrivingCareer choices
8 Recommendations 1 and 2All children with diabetes should have access to an experienced pediatric diabetes health care (DHC) team and specialized care starting at diagnosis [Grade D, Level 4] .Children with new-onset type 1 diabetes who are medically stable should receive their initial education and management in an outpatient setting, provided that appropriate personnel and daily communication with the DHC are available [Grade B, Level 1A].
9 Glycemic Targets – Key Message Achieving adult targets for metabolic control is not always indicated and may be unsafe for some childrenAchieving targets may require much work on the part of family and care team to find the right insulin system
10 Glycemic Targets: Graduate with Age 2013AgeTarget A1C<6 years of age<8.0%6 to 12 years of age≤7.5%Adolescents≤7.0%
11 Glycemic Targets 2013 <6 <8.0% 6.0-10.0 N/A* 6-12 ≤7.5% 4.0-10.0 Age (years)A1C (%)FPG / premeal PG(mmol/L)2-hour pc PGConsiderations<6<8.0%N/A*Caution is required to minimizehypoglycemia because of the potential association between severe hypoglycemia and later cognitive impairment. Consider target of <8.5% if excessive hypoglycaemia occurs6-12≤7.5%N/ATargets should be graduated to the child’s age. Consider target of <8.0% if excessive hypoglycaemia occurs13-18≤7.0%Appropriate for most adolescents*Postprandial monitoring is rarely done in young children except for those on pump therapy for whom targets are not availableA1C = Glycated Hemoglobin; FPG = Fasting Plasma Glucose; PG = Plasma Glucose; N/A = Not Available
12 Glycemic TargetsClinical judgement is required – tailor goals to the patientEpisodes of frequent or severe hypoglycemia have been associated with poorer cognitive function in some follow-up studiesKnow your goals – research suggests that knowledge of glycemic targets by patients and parents, and consistent target setting by the diabetes team, was associated with improved metabolic control
13 Chronic Poor Metabolic Control Diabetes control may worsen during adolescence, possibly due to the following factors:Adolescent adjustment issuesPsychosocial distressIntentional insulin omissionPhysiologic insulin resistance
14 Recommendation 4 Glycemic targets should be graduated with age: 2013 Children <6 years of age should aim for an A1C <8.0% [Grade D, Consensus]. Caution should be used to minimize hypoglycemia because of the potential association in this age group between severe hypoglycemia and later cognitive impairment [Grade D, Level 4].Children 6 to 12 years of age should aim for an A1C target of ≤7.5% [Grade D, Consensus].Adolescents should aim for the same glycemic targets as adults [Grade A, Level 1A].
15 Recommendation 5Children with persistently poor glycemic control (e.g. A1C >10%) should be assessed by a specialized pediatric diabetes team for a comprehensive interdisciplinary assessment and referred for psychosocial support as indicated [Grade D, Consensus]. Intensive family and individualized psychological interventions aimed at improving glycemic control should be considered to improve chronically poor metabolic control [Grade A, Level 1A].
16 Insulin Therapy – Key Message It is reasonable to introduce a basic insulin regimen (e.g. minimum 3 injections per day) but a more intensive system is indicated if success not achieved despite good effort
17 Insulin Type (trade name) Types of Insulin for Use in T1DMInsulin Type (trade name)OnsetPeakDurationBolus (prandial) InsulinsRapid-acting insulin analogues (clear):Insulin aspart (NovoRapid®)Insulin glulisine (Apidra™)Insulin lispro (Humalog®)minh1 - 2 h3 - 5 hhShort-acting insulins (clear):Insulin regular (Humulin®-R)Insulin regular (Novolin®geToronto)30 min2 - 3 h6.5 hBasal InsulinsIntermediate-acting insulins (cloudy):Insulin NPH (Humulin®-N)Insulin NPH (Novolin®ge NPH)1 - 3 h5 - 8 hUp to 18 hLong-acting basal insulin analogues (clear)Insulin detemir (Levemir®)Insulin glargine (Lantus®)90 minNot applicableUp to 24 h(glargine 24 h,detemir h)Insulin preparations are formulated as either structurally identical to human insulin or as modifications of human insulin (insulin analogues) to alter their pharmacokinetics. As shown in this slide, insulin preparations are further classified according to their duration of action, their time of onset and their peak actions.Basal and bolus insulin protocols attempt to duplicate normal pancreatic insulin secretion. Basal insulin is provided by an intermediate-acting insulin or a long-acting insulin analogue given once- or twice-daily. Intermediate-acting insulin has an onset of action of 1-3 hours, with peak action occurring at 5-8 hours, and a duration of action of up to 18 hours. Long-acting insulin analogues have an onset of action of 90 minutes and duration of action of up to 24 hours.Insulins available for prandial coverage (bolus insulins) include regular insulin (defined as short-acting) and the rapid-acting insulin analogues (insulin aspart, glulisine, and lispro). The rapid-acting analogues allow for a closer approximation to normal physiological insulin secretion. They are absorbed more rapidly than regular insulin, leading to a more rapid onset of action (10–15 minutes) and peak action (about 1-2 hours), and a shorter duration of action (3–5 hours). Their rapid onset of action allows them to be given just before meals (i.e., within 15 minutes). The dose of bolus insulins should take into account exercise around mealtime as well as the carbohydrate content and glycemic index of the carbohydrates consumed at each meal.It is important to match these insulin regimens to the individual needs, concerns, and capabilities of each patient.Reference:CDA Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee. Canadian Diabetes Association 2008 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada. Can J Diabetes 2008;32(Suppl 1):S1-S201.
18 Analogue Basal: Lantus, Levemir Serum Insulin LevelTimeAnalogue Bolus: Apidra, Humalog, NovoRapidHuman Basal: Humulin-N, Novolin ge NPHAnalogue Basal: Lantus, LevemirHuman Bolus: Humulin-R, Novolin ge Toronto
19 Insulin Therapy – Key Message Insulin is the mainstay of medical managementThe choice of insulin regimen depends on many factors:Child’s ageDuration of diabetesFamily lifestyleSocioeconomic factorsFamily, patient, and physician preferences
21 Insulin TherapyIf initial regimen fails to meet glycemic targets, more intensive management may be required:Three methods of intensive diabetes management can be used at any age:Similar regimen with more frequent injectionsbasal bolus regimens using long and rapid acting insulin analoguescontinuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII, insulin pump therapy)
22 Recommendation 6Children with new-onset diabetes should be started on at least 2 daily injections of bolus insulin (eg. short-acting bolus insulin or rapid-acting bolus insulin analogues) combined with basal insulin (eg. intermediate-acting insulin or long-acting basal insulin analogue) [Grade D, Consensus].
23 Recommendation 7Insulin therapy should be assessed at each clinical encounter to ensure it still enables the child to meet A1C targets, minimizes the risk of hypoglycemia, and allows flexibility in carbohydrate intake, daily schedule, and activities [Grade D, Consensus]. If these goals are not being met, an intensified diabetes management approach (including increased education, monitoring, and contact with diabetes team) should be used [Grade A, Level 1 for adolescents and Grade D, Consensus for younger children], and treatment options may include:Increased frequency of injections [Grade D, Consensus]Change in the type of basal and/or bolus insulin [Grade B, Level 2, for adolescents; Grade D, Consensus, for younger children].Change to CSII therapy [Grade C, Level 3].
24 Glucose MonitoringSelf-monitoring of blood glucose is an essential part of management of type 1 diabetesSubcutaneous continuous glucose sensors allow detection of asymptomatic hypoglycemia and hyperglycemiaSubcutaneous continuous glucose sensors may have a beneficial role in children and adolescents but evidence is not as strong as in adults
25 NutritionAll children with type 1 diabetes should receive counselling from a registered dietitian experienced in pediatric diabetesChildren with diabetes should follow a healthy diet as recommended for children without diabetes in Eating Well with Canada’s Food GuideThere is no evidence that one form of nutrition therapy is superior to another in attaining age-appropriate glycemic targets.
26 NutritionUse of insulin to carbohydrate ratios may be beneficial but is not requiredThe effect of protein and fat on glucose absorption must also be consideredNutrition therapy should be individualized (based on the child’s nutritional needs, eating habits, lifestyle, ability, and interest) and must ensure normal growth and development without compromising glycemic control
27 Hypoglycemia – Key Message All families should understand the importance of hypoglycemia (severity and frequency) along with treatment and follow up strategies
28 Hypoglycemia – Key Message Hypoglycemia is a major obstacle for children with type 1 diabetes and can affect their ability to achieve glycemic targetsSignificant risk of hypoglycemia often necessitates less stringent glycemic goals, particularly for younger childrenThere is no evidence in children that one insulin regimen or mode of administration is superior to another for reducing non-severe hypoglycemia
29 Examples of Carbohydrate for Treatment of Mild to Moderate Hypoglycemia Patient Weight<15 kg15 to 30 kg>30 kgAmount of carbohydrate5g10 g15 gCarbohydrate SourceGlucose tablet (4 g)12 or 34Dextrose tablet (3 g)235Apple or orange juice; regular soft drink; sweet beverage (cocktails)40 ml85 ml125 ml
30 Hypoglycemia – Key Message Frequent use of continuous glucose monitoring in a clinical care setting may reduce episodes of hypoglycemiaIn children, the use of mini-doses of glucagon has been shown to be useful in the home management of mild or impending hypoglycemia associated with inability or refusal to take oral carbohydrateDose = 10 mcg x (years of age)Dose range 20 – 150 mcg
31 Severe Hypoglycemia Age ≤5 yrs 0.5 mg glucagon SC or IM Diabetes care team should be contacted following a severe hypoglycemic eventConsider reducing insulin doses in short term to avoid repeat event
32 Recommendation 82013In children, the use of mini-doses of glucagon (10µg per year of age with minimum dose 20µg and maximum dose 150µg), should be considered in the home management of mild or impending hypoglycemia associated with inability or refusal to take oral carbohydrate [Grade D, Level 4].
33 Recommendation 9In the home situation, severe hypoglycemia in an unconscious child >5 years of age should be treated with 1 mg of glucagon subcutaneously or intramuscularly. In children ≤5 years of age, a dose of 0.5 mg of glucagon should be given. The episode should be discussed with the diabetes healthcare team as soon as possible and consideration given to reducing insulin doses for the next 24 hours to avoid further severe hypoglycemia [Grade D, Consensus].
34 Recommendation 10Dextrose 0.5 to 1g/kg should be given over 1 to 3 minutes to treat severe hypoglycemia with unconsciousness when IV access is available [Grade D, Consensus].
35 Diabetic Ketoacidosis DKA is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with diabetesStrategies are required to prevent the development of DKAIn new-onset diabetes, DKA can be prevented through earlier recognition and initiation of insulin therapyCaution is necessary in management of pediatric DKA due to increase risk of cerebral edema
36 Diabetic Ketoacidosis Failing to take insulin or poor sick day managementDiabetic ketoacidosisRisk factors are the following:Children with poor control or previous episodes of DKAPeripubertal and adolescent girlsChildren on pumps or long-acting insulin analogsChildren with psychiatric disorders, and those with difficult family circumstances
37 Diabetic Ketoacidosis - PREVENTION The frequency of DKA in established diabetes can be decreased with education, behavioural intervention, and family support, as well as access to 24-hour telephone services for parents of children with diabetes
38 Management of DKA: Cerebral Edema 0.7 to 3.0% of pediatric cases are complicated by cerebral edema (CE) which is associated with significant morbidity (21-35%) and mortality (21-24%)Do NOT administer hypotonic fluid rapidlyDo NOT give IV insulin bolusStart IV insulin infusion 1 hour AFTER fluid resuscitation has begun
39 Risk Factors for Developing Cerebral Edema Younger age (<5 years)New-onset diabetesHigh initial serum ureaLow initial partial pressure or arterial carbon dioxide (pCO2)Rapid administration of hypotonic fluidsIV bolus of insulinEarly IV insulin infusion (within 1st hour of fluids)Failure of serum sodium to rise during treatmentUse of bicarbonate
44 Recommendation 11 To prevent DKA in children with diabetes: Targeted public awareness campaigns should be considered to educate parents and other caregivers (e.g. teachers) about the early symptoms of diabetes [Grade C, Level 3].Comprehensive education and support services [Grade C, Level 3], as well as 24-hour telephone services [Grade C, Level 3], should be available for families of children with diabetes.
45 Recommendation 12DKA in children should be treated according to pediatric-specific protocols [Grade D, Consensus]. If appropriate expertise/facilities are not available locally, there should be immediate consultation with a centre with expertise in pediatric diabetes [Grade D, Consensus].
46 Recommendation 13In children in DKA, rapid administration of hypotonic fluids should be avoided [Grade D, Level 4]. Circulatory compromise should be treated with only enough isotonic fluids to correct circulatory inadequacy [Grade D, Consensus]. Restoration of extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) should be extended over a 48-hour period with regular reassessments of fluid deficits [Grade D, Level 4].
47 Recommendations 14 and 15In children in DKA, IV insulin bolus should not be given; an IV infusion of short-acting insulin should be used at an initial dose of 0.1 units/kg/hour [Grade D, Level 4]. The insulin infusion should not be started until 1 hour after starting fluid replacement therapy [Grade D, Level 4].In children in DKA, the insulin infusion rate should be maintained until the plasma anion gap normalizes. Once plasma glucose reaches 14.0 to 17.0 mmol/L, IV glucose should be started to avoid hypoglycemia [Grade D, Consensus].
48 Recommendation 16In children in DKA, administration of sodium bicarbonate should be avoided except in extreme circulatory compromise, as this may contribute to cerebral edema [Grade D, Level 4].
49 Comorbid Conditions / Considerations ImmunizationSmokingContraception / Sexual health counselingPsychological / PsychiatricEating disorders
50 ImmunizationThere is no evidence supporting increased morbidity or mortality from influenza or pneumococcus in children with type 1 diabetesThe management of type 1 diabetes can be complicated by illnessFor this reason, parents may choose to immunize their children. Long lasting immunogenecity to influenza vaccination has been shown to be adequate in these children
51 SmokingSmoking prevention should be emphasized throughout childhood and adolescence.
52 Contraception / Sexual Health Counselling Adolescents with diabetes should receive regular counselling about sexual health and contraceptionPregnancy in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes with suboptimal metabolic control may result in higher risks of maternal and fetal complications than in older women with type 1 diabetes who are already at increased risk compared to the general populationUnplanned pregnancies should be avoided
53 Psychological IssuesFor children, and particularly adolescents, there is a need to identify psychological disorders associated with diabetes and to intervene early to minimize the impact over the course of development.
54 Psychological / Psychiatric Risks Children and adolescents with diabetes have significant risks for psychological problems:DepressionAnxietyEating disordersExternalizing disordersThe risks increase exponentially during adolescence
55 Psychological / Psychiatric Risks Psychological disorders predict poor diabetes management and control and consequently, negative medical outcomesConversely, as glycemic control worsens, the probability of psychological problems increasesThe presence of psychological symptoms and diabetes problems in children and adolescents are often strongly affected by caregiver/family distress
56 Eating Disorders10% of adolescent females with type 1 diabetes meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition) criteria for eating disorders compared to 4% of their age-matched peers without diabetesEating disorders are associated with poor metabolic control and earlier onset and more rapid progression of microvascular complications
57 Eating DisordersEating disorders should be suspected in those adolescent and young adults who are unable to achieve and maintain metabolic targets, especially when insulin omission is suspected.It is important to identify individuals with eating disorders because different management strategies are required to optimize metabolic control and prevent microvascular complications
58 Recommendation 28, 29 and 30Influenza immunization should be offered to children with diabetes as a way to avoid an intercurrent illness that could complicate diabetes management [Grade D, Consensus]Formal smoking prevention and cessation counselling should be part of diabetes management for children with diabetes [Grade D, Consensus].Adolescent females with type 1 diabetes should receive counselling on contraception and sexual health in order to avoid unplanned pregnancy [Grade D, Level 4].
59 Recommendation 22 and 23Children and adolescents with diabetes, along with their families, should be screened regularly for psychosocial or psychological disorders [Grade D, Level 4] and should be referred to an expert in mental health and or psychosocial issues for intervention when required [Grade D, Consensus].Adolescent females with type 1 diabetes should be regularly screened using nonjudgmental questions about weight and body image concerns, dieting, binge eating, and insulin omission for weight loss [Grade D, Consensus].
60 Comorbid Conditions – Key Messages Always consider the possibility of autoimmune thyroid and adrenal disease, and celiac disease, particularly when there are suggestive signs or symptoms
61 Autoimmune Thyroid Disease Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD) occurs in 15 to 30% of individuals with type 1 diabetesRisk for AITD during the first decade of diabetes is directly related to the presence or absence of thyroid antibodiesHypothyroidism is most likely to develop in girls at pubertyEarly detection and treatment of hypothyroidism will prevent growth failure and symptoms of hypothyroidism
62 Autoimmune Thyroid Disease Hyperthyroidism also occurs more frequently in association with type 1 diabetes than in the general population
63 Addison’s Disease Addison’s disease is rare, even in those with type 1 diabetesTargeted screening is required in those with unexplained recurrent hypoglycemia and decreasing insulin requirements
64 Celiac DiseaseCeliac disease can be identified in 4 to 9% of children with type 1 diabetesIn 60 to 70% of these children, the disease is asymptomaticThere is good evidence that treatment of classic or atypical celiac disease with a gluten-free diet improves:Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptomsPrevents the long-term sequelae of untreated disease
65 Celiac Disease No evidence that: Untreated asymptomatic celiac disease is associated with short- or long-term health risksA gluten-free diet improves health in these individualsUniversal screening for and treatment of asymptomatic celiac disease remains controversial
66 Screening for Comorbid Conditions Indications for screeningScreening testFrequencyAutoimmune thyroid diseaseAll children with type 1 diabetesSerum TSH level + thyroperoxidase antibodiesAt diagnosis and every2 years thereafterPositive thyroid antibodies, thyroid symptoms or goiterEver y 6–12 monthsAddison’s diseaseUnexplained recurrent hypoglycemia and decreasing insulin requirements8 AM serum cortisol+ serum sodium and potassiumAs clinically indicatedCeliac diseaseRecurrent gastrointestinal symptoms, poor linear growth, poor weightgain, fatigue, anemia, unexplained frequent hypoglycemia or poor metabolic controlTissue transglutaminase+ immunoglobulin A levels
67 Recommendation 31Children with type 1 diabetes who have thyroid antibodies should be considered high risk for autoimmune thyroid disease [Grade C, Level 3]. Children with type 1 diabetes should be screened at diabetes diagnosis with repeat screening every 2 years using a serum TSH and thyroid peroxidase antibodies [Grade D, Consensus]. More frequent screening is indicated in the presence of positive thyroid antibodies, thyroid symptoms, or goiter [Grade D, Consensus].
68 Recommendation 32Children with type 1 diabetes and symptoms of classic or atypical celiac disease should undergo celiac screening [Grade D, Consensus] and, if confirmed, be treated with a gluten-free diet to improve symptoms [Grade D, Level 4] and prevent the long-term sequelae of untreated classic celiac disease [Grade D, Level 4]. Parents should be informed that the need for screening and treatment of asymptomatic (silent) celiac disease is controversial [Grade D, Consensus].
69 Diabetes Complications – Key Messages Nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and hypertension are relatively rare in pediatric diabetesScreening efforts should focus most attention on post-pubertal patients with longer duration and poorer control of their diabetes
70 NephropathyPrepubertal children, and those in the first 5 years of diabetes, should be considered at very low risk for microalbuminuriaA first morning urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) has high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of microalbuminuria (MAU)
71 NephropathyA random ACR may be compromised in adolescents due to their higher frequency of exercise-induced proteinuria and benign postural proteinuriaAbnormal random ACRs (>2.5 mg/mmol) require confirmation with a first morning ACR or timed urine overnight collection
72 NephropathyTreatment is indicated only for those adolescents with persistent microalbuminuriaThere are no long-term intervention studies assessing the effectiveness of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists in delaying progression to overt nephropathy in adolescents with microalbuminuriaTherefore, treatment guidelines are based on adult data
73 RetinopathyRetinopathy is rare in prepubertal children with type 1 diabetes and in postpubertal adolescents with good metabolic controlAge ≥15 yrs +DM of 5 yearsBegin annual screeningIf…. DM 5-10 yrs +normal eye exam +good glycemic controlScreen every 2 years
74 Neuropathy Neuropathy is mostly subclinical in children Prospective nerve conduction studies and autonomic neuropathy assessment studies have demonstrated increased prevalence of abnormalities over timePersistence of abnormalities is an inconsistent finding
75 NeuropathyVibration and monofilament testing have suboptimal sensitivity and specificity in adolescentsThe only treatment modality for children and adolescents is intensified diabetes management to achieve and maintain glycemic targets
76 DyslipidemiaMost children with type 1 diabetes should be considered at low risk for vascular disease associated with dyslipidemia. The exceptions are those with:Longer duration of diseaseMicrovascular complicationsCardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including:SmokingHypertensionObesityFamily history of premature CVD
77 Dyslipidemia Begin screening at: Repeat screening every 5 years ≥12 years of age<12 years of age with specific risk factorsRepeat screening every 5 yearsStatin therapy has only rarely been studied specifically in children with diabetesNo evidence linking specific low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cutoffs in children with diabetes with long-term outcomes
78 HypertensionUp to 16% of adolescents with type 1 diabetes have hypertensionScreen blood pressure at least twice a yearRole of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in routine care remains uncertainTreat according to the guidelines for children without diabetes
79 Indications & intervals for screening ComplicationIndications & intervals for screeningScreening methodNephropathy• Yearly screening commencing at 12 years of age in those with duration of type 1 diabetes ≥ 5 years• First morning (preferred) or random ACR• Abnormal ACR requires confirmation at least 1 month later with a first morning ACR, and if abnormal, followed by timed, overnight or 24-hour split urine collections for albumin excretion rate• Repeated sampling should be done ever y 3–4 months over a 12-month period to demonstrate persistenceRetinopathy• Yearly screening commencing at 15 yrs of age with duration of DM ≥ 5 yrs• Screening interval can increase to 2 yrs if good glycemic control, duration of diabetes < 10 yrs, and no retinopathy at initial assessment• 7-standard field, stereoscopic-colour fundus photography with interpretation by a trained reader (gold standard); or• Direct ophthalmoscopy or indirect slit-lamp fundoscopy through dilated pupil; or• Digital fundus photographyNeuropathy• Postpubertal adolescents with poor metabolic control should be screened yearly after 5 years’ duration of DM• Question and examine for symptoms of numbness, pain, cramps and paresthesia, as well as sensation, vibration sense, light touch & ankle reflexesDyslipidemia• Delay screening post-diabetes diagnosis until metabolic control has stabilized• Screen at ≥12 years of age or <12 years of age with BMI > 95th percentile, family history of hyperlipidemia or premature CVD• Fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterolHyper tension• Screen all children with type 1 diabetes at least twice a year• Use appropriate cuff size
80 Recommendation 17Screening for microalbuminuria (MAU) should be performed annually, commencing at 12 years of age in children with type 1 diabetes >5 years` duration [Grade D, Consensus].
81 Recommendation 18Children ≥12 years of age should be screened for MAU with a first morning urine ACR (preferred) [Grade B, Level 2] or a random ACR [Grade D, Consensus].Abnormal results should be confirmed [Grade B, Level 2] at least one month later with a first morning ACR or timed, overnight urine collection for albumin excretion rate [Grade D, Consensus].MAU (ACR >2.5 mg/mmol) should not be diagnosed in children ≥12 years unless it is persistent, as demonstrated by 2 consecutive first morning ACR or timed collections obtained at 3 to 4-month intervals over a 6 to 12-month period [Grade D, Consensus].
82 Recommendation 19Children ≥12 years of age with persistent microalbuminuria should be treated as per adult guidelines (see CKD CPG Chapter 29) [Grade D, Consensus].
83 Recommendation 20In children ≥15 years of age with type 1 diabetes, screening and evaluation for retinopathy by an expert professional should be performed annually, starting five years after the onset of diabetes [Grade D, Consensus].The screening interval can be increased to every 2 years in children with type 1 diabetes who have good glycemic control, duration of diabetes <10 years, and no significant retinopathy (as determined by an expert professional) [Grade D, Consensus].
84 Recommendation 21Postpubertal children with type 1 DM of >5 years’ duration and poor metabolic control should be questioned about symptoms of numbness, pain, cramps, and paresthesia, and examined for skin sensation, vibration sense, light touch, and ankle reflexes [Grade D, Consensus].
85 Recommendation 24Children with type 1 diabetes who are <12 years of age should be screened for dyslipidemia if they have other risk factors, such as obesity (BMI >95th percentile for age and gender) and/or a family history of dyslipidemia or premature CVDRoutine screening for dyslipidemia should begin at 12 years of age, with repeat screening after five years [Grade D, Consensus].
86 Recommendation 25Once dyslipidemia is diagnosed in children with type 1 diabetes, the dyslipidemia should be treated as per lipid guidelines for adults with diabetes [Grade D, Consensus].
87 Recommendations 26 and 27All children with type 1 diabetes should be screened for hypertension at least twice annually [Grade D, Consensus].Children with type 1 diabetes and BP readings persistently above the 95th percentile for age should receive lifestyle counselling, including weight loss if overweight [Grade D, Level 4]. If BP remains elevated, treatment should be initiated based on recommendations for children without diabetes [Grade D, Consensus].
88 Transition to Adult Care Change of physician or DHC team can have major impact on disease management and metabolic control25% to 65% of young adults have no medical follow-up during the transitionThose with no follow-up are more likely to experience hospitalization for DKA during this periodOrganized transition services may decrease the rate of loss of follow-up
89 Recommendation 32013To ensure ongoing and adequate diabetes care, adolescents should receive care from a specialized program aimed at creating a well-prepared and supported transition to adult care that includes a transition coordinator, patient reminders, support and education, with or without a joint pediatric and adult clinic. [Grade C, Level 3]
90 SummaryGuidelines for children and adolescents differ from those of adults in a number of ways:Less aggressive A1C target acceptable in younger childrenLess intensive screening for complications of diabetes in the younger years due to lower incidenceGreater caution around DKA management given cerebral edema riskGreater awareness of unique psychosocial needs as children progress through developmental stages
91 CDA Clinical Practice Guidelines – for professionals1-800-BANTING ( )– for patients